The incidence of child labour in Nepal is relatively high compared with other countries in South Asia. According to the Nepal Labour Force Survey (NLFS) in 2008, 86.2% of children who were working were also studying and 13.8% of the children were working only. A comparison over the years of child labour force participation rate across gender and residence is shown in Table 1 below:
|Year||Total||Area of Residence||Area of Residence|
Most children (60.5%) worked up to 19 hours in 2008, while 32.2% worked 20 to 40 hours a week and 7.3% worked for more than 40 hours in a week. This trend is consistent in both rural and urban areas. In the 2003/2004 Nepal Living Standards Survey Statistical Report Volume II, it was found that the poorest consumption quintile has the highest percentage (18.7%) of child laborers who for more than 40 hours a week as compared with the rest of the consumption quintile. Also, according to Edmonds(2006) female children work more hours than their male siblings. In the same study Edmonds states that the majority of child labourers work in the agricultural sector and in domestic labour.
According to Ray (2004), child schooling and child labour force participation rates are negatively correlated as there is a trade-off between the two variables. Thus, an increase in labour hours would mean lesser time for schooling, and lesser work hours equals to an increase in time spent for schooling.
The International Labour Organization (ILO) defines child labour as "work that deprives children of their childhood, their potential and their dignity, and that is harmful to physical and mental development".  This includes work that interferes with schooling, separates children from their families, or exposes children to serious hazards.  The ILO's definition of child labour does not include work done outside of school hours or assistance provided to family. Their reasoning is that these activities are beneficial to a child's development.  While the age that someone is considered a child is different in different countries UNICEF defines child labour as someone who is between 5 and 14 years old involved in economic activity or domestic work.
Industries using child labour
The NLFS also found that 88.7% of the working children are being employed in the agricultural sector. 1.4% of employed children work in the manufacturing sector, 0.3% work in construction sector, 1.6% work in wholesale and retail trade, 1.0% work in hotels and restaurants, 0.1% work in private households with employed persons, and 6.9% work in other types of industries. About 78.1% of children working in the agricultural sector are engaged in subsistence farming.
In 2013, the U.S. Department of Labor reported that children in Nepal are engaged "in agriculture and the worst forms of child labor in commercial sexual exploitation". The report indicated other industrial activities like mining and stone breaking, weaving, and domestic service. In 2014, the Department's List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced Labor reported bricks, carpets, embellished textiles and stones as goods produced in such labor conditions by both child laborers and forced workers.
According to Edmonds (2006) the majority of children in the labour force work in the agricultural field. They also report that children aged 6-15 years old spend 9.2 hours a week working in the agriculture industry, with many more hours spent in other types of work. The agricultural sector is very dangerous for children, due to their exposure to harmful chemicals and dangerous weather conditions.  Fafchamps (2006) also reports that a child in Nepal is likely to be working in the agricultural sector if their parents are agricultural laborers and if they are located 3-7 hours away from an urban center. Even though these children spend a significant amount of time working in the fields they are often not counted in national statistics as being economically active.  With all of this said, Abdulai (1999) reports that children working in the agricultural field do not significantly impact the agricultural output of Nepal.
The Communist Party of Nepal [CPN(M)] was composed of the People's Liberation Army and the Royal Nepal Army. They instigated the Nepalese Civil War in 1996 because the Nepali government refused to address social and economic injustices. During the Nepalese Civil War the People's Liberation Army and the Royal Nepal Army conscripted child soldiers ranging from fourteen years old to eighteen years old. Some children joined the army due to abduction and manipulation, others due to voluntary association.  During the Nepalese Civil War children worked as soldiers, sentries, spies, cooks, and porters. Many Nepali child soldiers witnessed traumatic events such as bombings and violent deaths. The war happened in 1996 and in a study by Kohrt et al. in 2010, 15.5% of the surveyed children were still part of an army at the time of the study.
The carpet industry is one of the major sources of income in Nepal and children are seen as the inexpensive labour force behind it.  In Nepal, about 1,800 children under fourteen years old are employed by the carpet industry. In a study by Baker(2001) all of the 162 Nepali children in the study spent more than six hours a day working in the carpet industry. "Social Labelling" is the work of non-governmental organizations to inform consumers about the conditions that the rug was made in. "Social Labeling" has been effective in reducing child labour in the carpet industry by informing consumers about the working conditions of the factory where the rug was produced, and whether they utilize child labour. 
Domestic labour for children in Nepal includes childcare, cooking, shopping, fetching water, and cleaning. Some children, usually young girls, are forced into domestic labour due to human trafficking.  According to Edmonds(2006) in one week children ages 6-15 spend 4.3 hours doing domestic work. Girls typically have to do significantly more domestic work than their male siblings, and the hours girls spend on domestic work increases when there are siblings added to the household while the hours boys spend on domestic work generally stays the same. 
Causes of child labour
Poverty is a major cause of child labour in Nepal and is often coupled with lack of education according to a study by Ersado(2005). Poverty is a driver of child labour because the costs of schooling is very high and the immediate economic benefit of child labour is enticing according to Stash(2001).  Not having access to schooling often leads parents to find employment for their children. Children who are enrolled in school often have to work in order to afford the costs of schooling. Many parents do not want their children to be idle during the day but cannot enroll them in school due to the high cost. According to Ranjan (2002) this leads many parents to involve their children in the labour force. Entering the labour force has immediate economic benefits for the parents, while the economic benefits from educating their children would be long term.
Many parents in Nepal believe that female children should be at home doing domestic work instead of going to school according to Jamison (1987).  Their reasoning is that there would not be enough people supporting the household and that girls will be given away in marriage anyway. Girls who do go to school are still expected to do the same amount of labour because they typically do domestic work, while boys do less labour when they are enrolled in school because they typically do market work. According to Edmonds (2003), female children are more likely to be involved with child labour than male children. Girls also tend to work more hours than boys, especially the oldest girl. The more children a family has, the more hours the oldest female child works. When a male child is added to the family both the oldest female and male siblings have to work an extra 1.5 hours a week, and when a female child is added to the family only the oldest female child has to work extra hours.  This inequality persists to adulthood, as seen by Nepal's low score on the Gender-related Development Index (GDI). Nepal has a score of 0.545, as compared to Canada's score of 0.959.
Even though schooling increases a child's future income, there is a low enrollment rate by poor families. Parents may feel that by enrolling their children in school they are missing out on the income that they could bring in immediately. This effect is seen in a study by Ray(2002) found that increasing the labour market activity of a child negatively affects their schooling experience. When a child is involved with the labour force they are less likely to be enrolled in school.  This effect is seen much more strongly in girls than in boys. 
There is a higher proportion of mental illnessnes such as anxiety and post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) for Nepali child soldiers than for Nepali children who were never conscripted. This is especially true for female child soldiers as found in a study about the mental health of conscripted child soldiers by Kohrt (2008).  Female child soldiers also experienced gender-based stigma from their community after their work in the military. One year after the war 55% of the child soldiers participating in the study were found to have PTSD. 
According to Galli (2001), in the long run, child labour impedes long run economic growth through slower rate of human capital accumulation. One way in which human capital is accumulated is through education. As working takes up time for children to go to school, rate of human capital accumulation is negatively affected. Also, child labour is expanding as the economy is growing, which some see as an indication of a flawed economy.  Nonetheless, a study by Ersado(2005) found that children in Nepal contribute about 7% of the household income, which is quite high compared to other developing countries.
Given the seriousness of the issue of child labour in Nepal, there are thousands of Governmental Organizations and numerous international non-governmental organizations that work in Nepal to tackle the problem of child labour through improving educational standards.
International Labour Organization
One of the goals of this organization is to eliminate the worst forms of child labour in Nepal. They would like to strengthen the monitoring systems for child labour in order to prevent and identify the emerging sectors of child labour. They also plan to assist the Government of Nepal to endorse a hazardous child labour list. 
Children and Women in Social Service and Human Rights (CWISH)
The goal of CWISH is to create a respectful environment towards human rights, with a focus on child rights. They work to protect children from violence, sexual abuse, harassment, physical and humiliating punishment, bullying, neglect, trafficking, child labour and child marriage. They advocate for better policies, better implementation, and child education along with assisting vulnerable children and their families. Some of their accomplishments include helping 157495 Nepali children and has completed 83 projects. One of these projects included establishing 11 municipalities that monitor child labour.
Educate the Children
Educate the Children began by matching sponsors with disadvantaged children in Nepal in order to provide education. They have since expanded their program to improving women's literacy and community development. The three programs they currently run involve children’s education, women’s empowerment, and sustainable agricultural development. Regarding children's education ETC has started an early education program that was lacking in Nepal. They have also provided scholarships to help keep children in schools, and have focused their efforts on girls. In addition to this ETC has improved the quality of education and schooling conditions.
Increasing access to banks could decrease the amount of child labour in Nepal. Ersado (2005) found that in rural Nepal, access to a commercial bank positively affects child schooling and negatively affects child labor because access to credit allows a family to have a more stable income and have enough money to send their child to school.
Another proposed solution is to provide incentives for parents to send their kids to school. This could include providing enrollment subsidies and cash transfers with the condition that they enroll their children in school. 
Banning child labour may seem like a simple solution but its implications are that it would be very difficult to enforce the ban and it would come at a huge, immediate cost to the poor.  Also, banning child labour in one sector could lead children to enter other, more dangerous sectors such as prostitution.
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Speech recitation, group discussion, etc are some of the most important necessities of the student’s school life as such activities help them to develop leadership qualities by eliminating their fear in front of public. Now-a-days, it is very necessary for the students to take part in the activities other than the academic activities because of the ever growing competitive environment. They must involve whenever they get chance as speech recitation is the only activity which removes student’s hesitation of talking. We have provided below variety of speeches on child labour in order to help students to actively participate in the speech recitation during any event celebration in their school. All the child labour speech provided below are written using very easy words and simple sentences especially for the students. So, you can select any of the speeches on child labour according to your need and requirement:
Child Labour Speech
Child Labour Speech 1
Good morning to the respected Principal sir, sir, madam and my dear colleagues. My name is … I study in class … We have gathered here to celebrate this special occasion of … So, I would like to speech on child labour, a big social issue, interfering the growth and development of country. First of all I would like to thank my class teacher for offering me such a great opportunity to speech here.
My dear friends, child labour has been a big social issue which interferes the nation’s development to a great extent. As we all know that children become the future of the country so why people are using child labour only for their small benefits. Why they do not see from our eyes, why they do not let small children to live their sweet childhood? Why they keep small children away from their right of education. Some of the industrialists and businessmen involve children in some kind of employment at very low cost labour. They do so only for their greediness of getting efficient work at low cost of labour.
Child labour withdraws small children from their sweet and memorable childhood. It interferes with their regular schooling as it disturbs them mentally, physically, socially and morally. It is very dangerous and harmful disease to the children as well as country. This exploitative practice is still continuing by various international organizations despite of various strict rules and regulations all across the world which prohibits child labour. This social issue is running in the society for many years from the ancient time which has affected the development to a great extent.
Most of the children are involved in the child labour in the fields like agriculture, factories, home-based assembly operations, mining, production, and other services. Some of them have to work in night shifts or over time because of the need of more work and earn some more money for improving the financial condition of their family. Their normal routine of work become 12 hours long for which they get paid a little amount. The most important and primary causes of the child labour are very low family income, unavailability of schools with proper facilities for poor children, and illiteracy among poor parents.
This issue has been spread like a virus to the wide range of areas in the developing countries because of the high poverty, poor schooling opportunities, high population rate, lack of adult emplacement, etc. The highest incidence rate of child labour was in sub-Saharan Africa in 2010. According to this, more than 50% of the children (aged 5-14 years) of Africa were working. The agriculture field worldwide has been a largest employer of child labour for years. A big percentage of child labour is found in the rural settings and informal urban economy where children are forcefully employed by their owner or parents. According to the statistics of World Bank, there is seen some decrease in the incidence of child labour worldwide (25% in 1960 however, reduced to 10% by 2003).
My dear friends, we should be aware in detail about this problem and take some positive steps to remove this issue from the society. As being youth of the country, we are highly responsible towards the growth and development of the country, so we should work positively in the fields interfering it to go ahead.
Jai Hind, Jai Bharat
Child Labour Speech 2
Good morning to the Principal sir, sir, madam, my seniors and dear friends. My name is … I study in class … At this event, I would like to speech on child labour, its causes, and steps taken by government to remove this social issue from the society. I am very grateful to my class teacher that she has given me such as a great opportunity to speech on this topic in front of you.
Child labour is the wrong practice running in the society worldwide for years from the ancient time. It is not only a national issue but it is a worldwide issue. Child labour is the act of involving children in some type of labour at very low cost to get efficient work by the owners, industrialists, businessmen, etc. Generally they involve children in economic activity on part time basis. Somewhere children work for full night and over time without any leave to get more financial help. Child labour interferes with the physical and mental development of the children. It has taken its deep root in the society because of poverty, lack of shelter and food, lack of facilities for poor people, lack of education, big gap between rich and poor, growth of informal economy, etc.
According to the national census of India, the number of child labour (aged 4-15 years ) in 1998 was around 12.6 million, between 2009-2010 it was around 4.98 million (aged 5-14 years) and in 2011 it was around 4.35 million (aged 5-14). Here we see that child labour is decreasing year wise however, the question is, why we are not able to finish it completely even after living in an advanced era? Why it is decreasing very slowly, and not has finished yet? I think the main reason behind it; people have not developed their mind level positively yet. There is still the existence of dictatorship of rich people over poor people in the society. There is a big gap between rich and poor; well developed people have not capacity to accept equality in the society.
Indian law has specified around 64 industries as hazardous in which employing children are considered as criminal offence. Around 120,000 children in the country were involved in the hazardous job in 2001. The Constitution of India has prohibited the employment of children in hazardous industries however, not in non-hazardous industries. According to the UNICEF, it is estimated that the highest number of child labour is in India (under 14 years of age) all over the world. According to the International Labour Organization, around 60% of all the child labour is involved in agriculture whereas 70% by the United Nation’s Food and Agriculture Organization.
Child labour in the hazardous industries is prohibited by the Article 24 of India’s constitution. There are various laws and the Indian Penal Code (such as Juvenile Justice (care and protection) of Children Act-2000, Child Labour (Prohibition and Abolition) Act-1986, etc) working in the field to stop child labour in India.
Child Labour Speech 3
Good morning to the Excellencies, Principal sir, sir, madam, my seniors and dear friends. My name is … I study in class … I would like to speech on child labour at this occasion because it is one of the big issues interfering with the growth and development of our country. I would like to say a big thank to my class teacher to give me such as a great opportunity to speech here on this topic.
My dear friends, child labour is a global issue, it is not the issue of our country only so, it needs a global effort to get removed from the society. It has affected worldwide especially developing countries to a great extent. Children are involved in various types of labour at low payment; bonded child labour is one of them. It is a very old system in India in which children are forced, or partly forced by the owner to perform their job for long time. In this system, especially child or his/her parents have to agree for an agreement (oral or written) with the creditor. It was emerged in India during colonial period to get reliable and cheap labour at loan or land-lease relationship basis. Legislation was passed in 1977 in order to prohibit bonded child labour in India. However, some evidences have found proving the continuation of bonded child labour in the country.
Child labour is a serious issue in the society in terms of economic welfare because children involved in labour at their little age cannot get necessary education. They drop the opportunity of being a well developed (physically, mentally, intellectually, socially, psychologically and financially) citizen of the nation. Their physical and mental condition reduces day by day which makes them more vulnerable to various diseases. They remain illiterate lifelong which limit their ability to contribute in the well-being of their own and country.
There is need to make industrialists and businessmen well aware about all the adverse effects of child labour on the country’s development. Everyone must understand that education is the only tool to improve necessary skills among children which will help in increasing their own and nation’s productivity through secured higher-skilled jobs in future. It needs some effective and positive steps to be taken by the end of all Indian citizens especially well educated youths of the country to remove this social issue.
Child Labour Speech 4
Good morning to the Excellencies, respected Principal sir, sir, madam, my seniors and dear colleagues. My name is … I study in class … Today we are here to celebrate this occasion so, I would like to speech on the topic of child labour. I am very grateful to my class teacher that she has given me such as a great opportunity to speech here on this topic.
My dear friends, I feel very proud to be the citizen of India however, on the other hand, it makes me shame also that our country is a home to largest number of child laborers all over the world. It is just because of some greedy and clever Indian citizens who involve small children in hazardous labour at low labour cost for their benefits. They never think about the development of their country; they are very selfish and want their own benefits only. Most of the child labour is found in the agriculture field in rural areas and in mining industry, zari, embroidery industry, etc in the urban areas.
Some of the main causes of child labour are poverty, lack of basic facilities to all, lack of social security, etc. There is a big gap between rich and poor people of society, limitation to the basic facilities, and huge level inequality. Such type of social issues adversely affects children of the society (especially poor child) more than other age groups.
Because of the poor condition and lack of knowledge, poor children become ready to work hard for a little payment where they are used as domestic workers in the urban areas. This condition of child labour almost resembles to the situation of slavery. Most of the parents give birth to their children only to earn money and strengthen their financial condition. They involve their kids in the domestic works as their support. We generally see children working in the tea stalls, dhabas, restaurants, hotels, and other hazardous occupations.
It is seen that children involve in the child labour are generally belong to the schedules tribes, schedule castes, OBC and Muslims children. It means, castism (low cast poor people) is also the big reason of child labour in India. Its existence in such an advanced era is because of the inefficient laws, bad administrative system, lack of political desire to eliminate it completely and huge benefits to the employers.
Bonded child labour is also a type of child labour which is generally found in the informal sector. In this, poor children become bonded to work for an employer against a loan, inherited debt or social obligation by the family. We can say bonded labour a form of slavery. Bonded child laborers are more prone to the physical and sexual abuse and any type of negligence cause death. They become psychologically and mentally ill and do not have any other option to survive. As being youth of the country, we should understand our responsibility towards the nation and take some positive steps to eliminate this social issue.
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