Reconstruction In Arkansas Essay

Black Reconstruction in America: An Essay Toward a History of the Part Which Black Folk Played in the Attempt to Reconstruct Democracy in America, 1860–1880 is a history of the Reconstruction era by W. E. B. Du Bois, first published in 1935. It marked a significant break with the standard academic view of Reconstruction at the time, marked by the Dunning School, which contended that the period was a failure and downplayed the contributions of African Americans. Du Bois argued directly against these accounts, emphasizing the role and agency of blacks during the Civil War and Reconstruction and framing it as a period that held promise for a worker-ruled democracy to replace a slavery-based plantation economy. He noted that the southern working class, i.e. black freedmen and poor whites, were divided after the Civil War along the lines of race, and did not unite against the white propertied class, i.e. the former planters. He believed this failure enabled the white Democrats to regain control of state legislatures, pass Jim Crow laws, and disfranchise most blacks and many poor whites in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

Du Bois’ extensive use of data and primary source material on the postwar political economy of the former Confederate States is notable, as is the literary style of this 750-page essay. He notes major achievements, such as establishing public education in the South for the first time, the founding of charitable institutions to care for all citizens, the extension of the vote to the landless whites, and investment in public infrastructure.

Context and inception[edit]

Du Bois’ first essay on the topic was “Reconstruction and Its Benefits,” delivered to the American Historical Association on 30 December 1909 in New York City. Du Bois was then a professor at Atlanta University. Albert Bushnell Hart, one of his former professors at Harvard University, sent him money to attend the conference. William Archibald Dunning, leader of what was called the Dunning School that developed at Columbia University, heard Du Bois’ presentation and praised his paper. It was published in the July 1910 issue of The American Historical Review, but had little influence at the time.

A view had collected around James Pike’s work, The Prostrate State (1878), written shortly after Reconstruction ended. He contended there were no benefits from Reconstruction. Woodrow Wilson’s Division and Reunion, 1829–1889 (1893), and James Ford Rhodes’ History of the United States from the Compromise of 1850 (1906) denigrated African-American contributions during that period, reflecting attitudes of white supremacy in a period when most blacks and many poor whites had been disfranchised across the South. James Wilford Garner’s Reconstruction in Mississippi (1901), Walter Lynwood Fleming's Civil War and Reconstruction in Alabama (1905), Thomas Staples’ Reconstruction in Arkansas, 1862–1874 (1923), and Charles William Ramsdell’s Reconstruction in Texas (1910) were works by Dunning followers, most of whom had positions in history at Southern universities. They tended to see only failure in Reconstruction.

Summary[edit]

After three short chapters profiling the black worker, the white worker, and the planter, Du Bois argues in the fourth chapter that the decision gradually taken by slaves on the southern plantations to stop working during the war was an example of a potential general strike force of four million slaves the Southern elite had not reckoned with. The Institution of slavery simply had to soften: "In a certain sense, after the first few months everybody knew that slavery was done with; that no matter who won, the condition of the slave could never be the same after this disaster of war."[1]

Du Bois’ research shows that the post-emancipation South did not degenerate into economic or political chaos. State by state in subsequent chapters, he notes the efforts of the elite planter class to retain control and recover property (land, in particular) lost during the war. This, in the ever-present context of violence committed by paramilitary groups, often from the former poor-white overseer class, all throughout the South. These groups often used terror to repress black organization and suffrage, frightened by the immense power that 4 million voters would have on the shape of the future.[2]

He documents the creation of public health departments to promote public health and sanitation, and to combat the spread of epidemics during the Reconstruction period. Against the claim that the Radical Republicans had done a poor job at the constitutional conventions and during the first decade of Reconstruction, Du Bois observes that after the Democrats regained power in 1876, they did not change the Reconstruction constitutions for nearly a quarter century. When the Democrats did pass laws to impose racial segregation and Jim Crow, they maintained some support of public education, public health and welfare laws, along with the constitutional principles that benefited the citizens as a whole.

Critical reception and legacy[edit]

The work was largely ignored by critics and historians upon publication, when the views of the Dunning School associated with Columbia University prevailed in published histories of Reconstruction.[3] Some critics rejected Du Bois’ critique of other historians writing about the freedmen’s role during Reconstruction. Du Bois lists a number of books and writers that he believed misrepresented the Reconstruction period. He identified those he believed were particularly racist or ill-informed works. Du Bois thought that certain historians were maintaining the “southern white fairytale”[4] instead of accurately chronicling the events and key figures of Reconstruction.

In the 1960s and through the next decades, a new generation of historians began to re-evaluate Du Bois’ work, as well as works of the early 20th century by African-American historians Alrutheus A. Taylor, Francis Butler Simkins, and Robert Woody.[5] They developed new research and came to conclusions that revised the historiography of Reconstruction. This work emphasized black people’s agency in their search for freedom and the era’s radical policy changes that began to provide for general welfare, rather than the interests of the wealthy planter class.[5][6]

Scholarship in the 1970s and 1980s tempered some of these claims by highlighting continuities in the political goals of white politicians before and during Reconstruction. Du Bois' emphasis on the revolutionary character of Reconstruction was affirmed by Eric Foner’s landmark book, Reconstruction: America's Unfinished Revolution, 1863–1877.[7] By the early twenty-first century, Du Bois’ Black Reconstruction was widely perceived as “the foundational text of revisionist African American historiography.”[8]

References[edit]

  1. ^Du Bois, W. E. B. (1935). Black Reconstruction. Harcourt Brace. p. 59. 
  2. ^Du Bois, W. E. B. (1935). Black Reconstruction. Harcourt Brace. pp. 419, 465, 494, 503, 521, 675–709. 
  3. ^Foner, Eric (2013). "Black Reconstruction: An Introduction". South Atlantic Quarterly. 112 (3): 409–418. doi:10.1215/00382876-2146368. Retrieved 2016-01-18. 
  4. ^Black Reconstruction, p. 715
  5. ^ abFoner, Eric (1 December 1982). "Reconstruction Revisited". Reviews in American History. 10 (4): 82–100 [83]. doi:10.2307/2701820. ISSN 0048-7511. JSTOR 2701820. 
  6. ^“During the civil rights era, however, it became apparent that Du Bois’ scholarship, despite some limitations, had been ahead of its time.” Campbell, James M.; Rebecca J. Fraser; Peter C. Mancall (11 October 2008). Reconstruction: People and Perspectives. ABC-CLIO. p. xx. ISBN 978-1-59884-021-6. 
  7. ^Campbell, James M.; Rebecca J. Fraser; Peter C. Mancall (11 October 2008). Reconstruction: People and Perspectives. ABC-CLIO. p. xix–xxi. ISBN 978-1-59884-021-6. 
  8. ^“W. E. B. Du Bois’ (1935/1998) Black Reconstruction in America, 1860–1880 is commonly regarded as the foundational text of revisionist African American historiography.” Bilbija, Marina (1 September 2011). "Democracy's New Song". The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science. 637 (1): 64–77. doi:10.1177/0002716211407153. ISSN 0002-7162. Retrieved 2012-02-25. 

External links[edit]

Manuscript Resources for the Civil War

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1. Eliza Adams.
Diary, 1859-1863; 1 roll.

Eliza Adams was a young woman living with her family near Arkadelphia (Clark County) in the late 1850s. On April 1, 1859, she began keeping a diary, recording her day-to-day activities. Her entries are usually quite terse, no more than a sentence or two, and generally record visits to neighbors, weather conditions, and her health. Four of her brothers enlisted in the Confederate army, but other than mentioning her concern for their welfare, the diary sheds little light on their service experiences. Microfilm copy of the original volume held by the Arkansas History Commission.

2. Nathaniel Madison Aldridge.
Records, 1874-1904; 10 items.

Positive photocopies of U. S. Court of Claims records pertaining to the case of Nathaniel Madison Aldridge of Rienzi, Mississippi. Aldridge was a Union sympathizer who supplied Federal soldiers with livestock and agricultural products during the Civil War.

3. Arkansas. State Legislature.
State legislative journals, 1819-1935; 17 rolls.

Journals include bills, proceedings, resolutions, and other legislative matters considered by the Arkansas House and Senate during the the Civil War and Reconstruction. Included are records produced when the seat of government transferred to Washington (Hempstead County) in 1863. Microfilm copy, made in 1942, of original documents then held in the office of the Arkansas Secretary of State.

4. Arkansas. Military Board.
Ledger, 1861-1862; 1 volume.

An official account ledger maintained by the state of Arkansas detailing purchases from various individuals and businesses. The ledger was looted from the State House in Little Rock (Pulaski County) by Private Johann Afelt, Third Minnesota Infantry, in late 1863. The first section (44 pages) of the ledger records transactions at Little Rock from October 30, 1861, to January 3, 1862.

5. Arkansas Missionary Baptists.
Printed records and documents, 1857-1970; 436 items.

Minutes and proceedings, yearbooks, directories, clippings, histories, and other material pertaining to Arkansas Missionary Baptists and other Baptist groups. Among the materials in this collection are positive photocopies of twenty pages from the diary of Captain Robert Mullins Thrasher, Company B, Eighteenth Arkansas Infantry. Thrasher was a Baptist minister prior to the war, fought in several engagements in Mississippi, and was captured at Port Hudson, Louisiana, on July 9, 1863. He was shipped to Johnson's Island on Lake Erie where he spent the remainder of the war with other prisoners from the western theater. Thrasher's diary contains "letters" which he composed to his wife, describing prison life and religious observances from December 26, 1863, to July 17, 1864.

6. Chester A. Arthur.
Papers, 1843-1938; 3 rolls.

Chester A. Arthur was twenty-first president of the United States and, during the Civil War, quartermaster general for the New York State Militia. Most of Arthur's papers were burned at his direction the day before he died, but this small collection contains a few letters written during the war. Post-war correspondents include William T. Sherman. Microfilm copy of original documents held by the Library of Congress.

7. Badgett Family.
Papers, 1843-1877; 62 items.

Positive photocopies of correspondence and other documents pertaining to members of the Henry Badgett family of Blackwell, North Carolina. Henry Badgett was a planter and slave dealer in North Carolina prior to the Civil War. He had at least three sons, William, Alfred, and Thomas, who lived at home, and a brother, Alfred, who lived in Texas. Most of the letters written to Henry from his brother and others dated prior to 1860 concern business matters, primarily the slave trade. Thomas Badgett was a student at both the University of North Carolina and the University of Pennsylvania from 1858 to 1860. His letters from Pennsylvania include observations on Northern culture and political sentiments following the execution of John Brown. Alfred and William both joined the Confederate army, and one letter from each, written in 1861 while on duty in Virginia, is included in the collection, along with Alfred's certificate of exemption from military service dated 1863. The collection includes handwritten transcriptions of each letter.  Finding aid available online.

8. Joseph M. Bailey.
Memoir, undated; 1 item.

Positive photocopy of a typewritten autobiographical manuscript entitled "Story of a Confederate Soldier, 1861-1865" written by First Lieutenant Joseph M. Bailey, Company D, Sixteenth Arkansas Infantry. Originally from Tennessee, Bailey moved to Carroll County with his family in the 1850s. He enlisted in the Arkansas state troops when the war broke out and was initially assigned to the Fourth Arkansas Infantry. Following the battle of Wilson's Creek, Bailey mustered out of state service but then reenlisted in the regular Confederate army and was assigned to the Sixteenth Arkansas Infantry. He fought with his unit at Pea Ridge (Benton County), Corinth, and Port Hudson, Mississippi, where the entire regiment was taken prisoner. Bailey and a comrade managed to escape and make their way back to Arkansas where he finished out the war in an unidentified company of irregulars. The original typewritten manuscript is held by the Texas State Library. Finding aid available online.

9. Clinton Owen Bates.
Memoir, 1949; 3 items.

Two photographs and a typewritten memoir dated May 1949, by Clinton Owen Bates, a retired teacher from Tahlequah, Oklahoma. In his autobiographical essay, Bates describes his memories of the battle of Prairie Grove (Washington County) which occurred while he was about four years old and visiting a relative in the area.

10. James Henderson Berry.
Letters and papers, 1905-1913; 120 items.

Personal correspondence, essays, and obituary notices pertaining to James Henderson Berry (1841-1913), former governor and United States senator from Arkansas. Berry served as a second lieutenant of Company E, Sixteenth Arkansas Infantry, and left the service after he lost a leg in fighting near Corinth, Mississippi, in 1862. Following his 1906 defeat for reelection to the Senate, Berry was appointed by the secretary of war to mark the graves of Confederate soldiers who had died in Union prison camps. This collection includes a few letters pertaining to Berry's activities with the grave-marking commission and as an officer of the United Confederate Veterans. Finding aid available online.

11. James Russell Berry.
Memoir, 1906; 1 item.

Typed manuscript autobiography entitled "Facts and Reminiscences, Recorded by Hon. James R. Berry," September 20, 1906. Berry was a prominent post-war Arkansas political figure and son-in-law of Unionist governor Isaac Murphy. His story includes many incidents he witnessed while a wartime resident of Huntsville (Madison County) and Little Rock (Pulaski County), and observations on Arkansas political events during the Reconstruction era.

12. Mary C. Berry.
Biographical essay [1942]; 1 item.

Typewritten biographical essay entitled "Hon. James H. Berry" written by his granddaughter, Mary C. Berry. Four of the eighteen pages touch upon James Berry's Civil War experiences. Finding aid available online.

13. C. P. Bolding.
Oath, 1865; 1 item.

Positive photocopy of a parole oath sworn by Sergeant C. P. Bolding, Company A, Forty-first Mississippi Infantry, following his surrender at Oklona, Mississippi, May 31, 1865.

14. Amanda Malvina Fitzallen McClellan Braly.
Family papers, 1841-1920; 120 items.

Correspondence, diary, notebook, photographs, and other records pertaining to the Braly family of Cane Hill (Washington County). Amanda Braly moved to the Cane Hill area in 1853 with her husband, Frank, and children, William, Mary Francis, Frank, Jr., and Samuel. Frank Braly served as minister for the Salem congregation of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church until his death in 1856. When the war broke out, William enlisted in Company B, Thirty-fourth Arkansas Infantry, and saw action at Prairie Grove (Washington County), Helena (Phillips County), and Jenkins' Ferry (Grant County), while the rest of his family remained at Cane Hill. Much of the correspondence from the war years is between Amanda and William. Although his letters fail to mention the fight at Prairie Grove, two of William's later missives describe his combat experiences at Helena and Jenkins' Ferry. Another letter in the collection, dated January 8, 1863, is from Sergeant John J. Pierson, Company H, Fifteenth Arkansas Infantry, while he was stationed near Grenada, Mississippi. A diary kept by Cane Hill resident Laura Hagood from 1864 to 1865 is also included in the collection.

15. Jennie E. Brander.
Letter, July 4, 1863; 1 item.

Letter written by Jennie E. Brander, a school teacher in Bolivar, Mississippi, to "My Beloved Friend," living in Bellevue, Louisiana. Brander describes the previous year's burning of her town by Union troops, rumored conditions in the Vicksburg area, and her activities as a teacher at Bolivar.

16. Joseph K. Brantley.
Roster, 1860-1865; 1 item.

Memorandum book, kept by Sergeant Joseph K. Brantley, Zimmerman's Battery, Arkansas Light Artillery (Seventh Arkansas Field Battery), containing a roster of non-commissioned officers and enlisted men, a list of shoes issued to the unit on May 12, 1865, and what appear to be sales transactions recorded in February 1860.  Finding aid available online.

17. J. N. Bromley.
Biography of John W. Morris, 1916; 1 roll.

Mrs. J. N. Bromley of Marshall (Searcy County) wrote this biography of her father, Lieutenant John Wortman Morris, Company H, First Arkansas Cavalry (Union), in 1916. Much of it is genealogical information on the Morris family. Although Morris served with the Union army only briefly, he did participate in the opening movements of the battle of Prairie Grove (Washington County). Microfilm copy of an original typewritten manuscript held by the University of Central Arkansas.

18. H. J. Briggs.
Oath, 1863; 1 item.

Oath of allegiance issued by the provost marshal's office of Helena (Phillips County) to H. J. Briggs on January 5, 1863.

19. John William Brown.
Diary, 1852-1865; 2 rolls.

John William Brown was a merchant, planter, and businessman in Camden (Ouachita County) during the war. Born in Tennessee and educated at Louisville, Kentucky, Brown moved to Arkansas after living in Memphis, Tennessee. He tried running his own plantation in Dallas County for a while but then moved to Camden in the early 1850s. He served as a city alderman in 1857. When the war broke out, Brown remained at home and recorded his observations on his daily activities and those of his community with graphic regularity. He was an eyewitness to the Federal occupation of the town in April 1864 by troops under the command of Major General Frederick Steele, and to the subsequent return of Confederate control under soldiers commanded by Lieutenant General E. Kirby Smith. The diary has been extensively quoted in various articles in the Arkansas Historical Quarterly over the past three decades but has never been published in its entirety. The first roll of microfilm is of the original volumes; the second consists of a typed transcript. The original and typed transcription are held by the Arkansas History Commission.

20. Herbert Earle Buchanan.
Family papers, 1837-1935; 61 items.

Letters, deeds, diplomas, and certificates pertaining to the James Albert Buchanan family of Washington County. This collection includes a letter dated February 24, 1863, Shelbyville, Tennessee, from A. B. Flint to John Clark, address unidentified. Flint, apparently a Confederate army surgeon, wrote to Clark to report the death of Private Nathan Williamson (Tenth Texas Infantry) from wounds sustained during the battle of Murfreesboro, December 31, 1862.

21. Frederick W. Bush.
Letters, 1861, 1863; 5 items.

Positive photocopies of five letters from Sergeant Frederick W. Bush, Company E, First Arkansas Infantry, to his cousin, Emily Shoppach of Arkadelphia (Clark County). Bush's first letter, dated May 10, 1861, was written from his mustering camp near Benton (Saline County) and contains many references to camp conditions and expectations shared by his comrades. The next two letters, both dated in 1861, are from locations in Virginia and contain very little information on military movements. The final two letters were written in 1863 when Bush was serving with his regiment in Tennessee. These Tennessee letters express Bush's emphasis on camp conditions and news from home.

22. Butler-Paisley Family.
Letters and papers, 1829-1890s; 2 linear feet.

Correspondence, photographs, and papers pertaining to the Butler-Paisley families of Tulip (Dallas County) and Gurdon (Clark County). Alexander Butler had four sons serving in the Confederate army, all of whom enlisted in Company I, Third Arkansas Infantry, and served east of the Mississippi River. Other Butler children, including Alexander's daughter, Emma, remained at home throughout the war. The wartime correspondence in the collection includes letters from three of the Butler sons, Henry, George, and Lewis, along with W. S. Marshall (another member of the Third Arkansas), and Phenie Phinley, a girlfriend of Emma Butler. Of particular interest are the letters by George Butler, who enlisted as a private but later became the chaplain to the regiment. Most of the Butler-Paisley letters were published by Elizabeth Paisley Huckaby and Ethel C. Simpson in Tulip Evermore: Emma Butler and William Paisley, Their Lives and Letters, 1857-1887 (Fayetteville: University of Arkansas Press, 1985). Finding aid available online.

23. Cyrus Byington.
Letters, 1819-1861; 24 items.

Typewritten transcription of letters sent by Cyrus Byington to his relatives in Massachusetts. Byington was a missionary to the Choctaw nation in the Indian Territory prior to the Civil War and wrote a number of letters describing his work. The last, dated September 5, 1861, from Stockbridge, Eagleton Post Office, describes conditions in the area since the outbreak of hostilities, including shortages of medical supplies and recruitment of Indians by both sides.

24. Mary Vincenheller Byroade.
Family papers; 1808-1946; 5 1/2 linear feet.

Letters, legal documents, financial papers, and photographs pertaining to the Austin, Vincenheller, and Byroade families of Van Buren (Crawford County). A portion concerns the John Austin family from 1830 to 1911. Austin, an Irish immigrant who settled in Van Buren around 1842, was a merchant and one-time mayor of the town in 1854. He took no part in the military aspects of the conflict, but in 1863 he served as a delegate to the state constitutional convention called by Union authorities and in 1864 went to Little Rock (Pulaski County) as a state representative. The collection includes Austin's oath of allegiance to the Federal government, travel passes issued to Austin for wartime journeys to Little Rock, Fort Smith (Sebastian County) and Cincinnati, Ohio, and some documentation of post-war reparation claims. Among the pre-war legal documents are deeds recording the sale of slaves. Finding aid available online.

25. Jonathan W. Callaway.
Letters and papers, 1861-1864; 1 roll.

First Lieutenant Jonathan W. Callaway, Company E, Second Arkansas Mounted Rifles, enlisted in the regiment at Arkadelphia (Clark County), in the early summer of 1861 and was officially enrolled into the Confederate service at Camp McRae on July 27 of the same year. Callaway accompanied his regiment to camps in southwest Missouri and was present at the battle of Wilson's Creek on August 10, 1861. After the battle Callaway and his regiment returned to Arkansas and went into winter quarters near Van Buren (Crawford County). The Second Arkansas saw action again at the battle of Pea Ridge (Benton County) and then joined with other Southern forces east of the Mississippi at Corinth, Mississippi. Callaway began writing letters home to Arkadelphia shortly before the Wilson's Creek fight, usually addressing them to W. T. Thompson. Most of the letters were written in 1861 and 1862 from places in Missouri, Arkansas, Mississippi, and Tennessee, including Chattanooga and Cumberland Gap. One letter, dated April 15, 1864, was sent from a location in Texas and describes some fighting in Louisiana during the Camden Expedition. Other documents in the collection include samples of the Hornet's Nest, a handwritten regimental "newspaper" produced in Missouri in 1861. Microfilm copy made by the Arkansas History Commission in 1960.

26. James M. Campbell.
Letter, December 20, 1866; 1 item.

Letter from Tazel Sidney Williams, Titus County, Texas, to James M. Campbell, Fayetteville (Washington County), describing social and economic conditions in Reconstruction-era Texas.

27. William Harper Cardwell.
Papers, 1854-1866; 26 items.

Letters and papers pertaining to the William Harper Cardwell family of Fayetteville (Washington County). The collection includes thirteen letters from Private Thomas A. Cardwell, Company E, First Battalion Arkansas Cavalry, to his father, William, his brother, Addison F. Cardwell, and other members of his family. Thomas's letters, dated from 1862 to 1863, were written from various points in Arkansas and Mississippi and describe some military operations prior to the siege of Vicksburg. Cardwell was captured with the rest of General John C. Pemberton's army on July 4, 1863, at Vicksburg and was released on parole. In addition to the letters, the Cardwell collection includes a parole oath signed by Thomas on July 7, 1863, an amnesty oath signed by Addison in 1866, and several examples of Arkansas Confederate currency and postage stamps.

28. Milton P. Chambers.
Papers, 1863-1864; 15 items.

Personal correspondence from Private Milton P. Chambers, Company I, Twenty-ninth Iowa Infantry, to his brother Armory K. Chambers in Glenwood, Iowa. The first three letters were written from Helena (Phillips County), and the balance from Little Rock (Pulaski County). Chambers describes the routine of camp life at the two cities, the morale of the troops, and the activities of the enemy. One letter, dated May 7, 1864, vividly describes Milton's experiences during the Camden Expedition and includes mention of battles at Elkin's Ford (Nevada County), Prairie D'Ane (Nevada County), and Jenkins' Ferry (Grant County), and the participation of black Union troops. Finding aid available online.

29. Chicago Historical Society.
Selected Arkansas manuscripts, 1724-1883; 1 roll.

Among the Civil War documents in this collection are letters, reports, and diaries created by Dr. Robert Mitchell, assistant surgeon, Tenth Wisconsin Infantry. Mitchell kept a diary intermittently from 1861 through 1864, containing observations on his daily activities and financial memoranda. These diaries contain mention of the battle of Stone's River, Tennessee, December 31, 1862, to January 2, 1863, and the Camden Expedition of March and April 1864. Letters from Private E. C. Hubbard, Thirteenth Illinois Infantry, from 1861 to 1864, describe his participation in General Nathaniel Lyon's southwest Missouri campaign and later operations in the Vicksburg, Mississippi area. Places mentioned include: Rolla and Keitsville, Missouri; Batesville (Independence County), Helena (Phillips County), Arkansas Post (Arkansas County); and Vicksburg, Corinth, and Iuka, Mississippi. This selection also includes letters from Captain James Lawrence, Company I, Sixty-first Illinois Infantry, dated 1863, Helena and Little Rock (Pulaski County), and letters written from Helena in 1862 and 1863 by Private Delazon Ketchum, Company E, Twenty-ninth Wisconsin Infantry. Microfilm copy of original manuscripts from the Chicago Historical Society.

30. Chicot County History.
Manuscript, 1915; 1 item.

Handwritten manuscript history entitled "Chicot County, Arkansas--Pioneer and Present Times," written by Leona Sumner Brasher, the widow of Dr. A. D. Brasher, assistant surgeon, Third Louisiana Infantry. Brasher's story, based on personal and family recollections, includes capsule biographical sketches of many Chicot County Confederate soldiers.

31. Ira A. Church.
Papers, 1891; 2 items.

Copy of a letter dated April 1, 1891, Headquarters, Grand Army of the Republic, Decatur, Illinois, from T. S. Hays to Colonel Ira A. Church, Texarkana (Miller County), regarding the charter of the first GAR post in Arkansas, and a photograph of Church (circa 1890s).

32. George W. Clarke.
Statement and settlement of accounts, 1861-1862; 1 roll.

Statement analysis of the account of Major George W. Clarke, quartermaster at Fort Smith (Sebastian County), pointing out and explaining errors and discrepancies. Microfilm copy of original documents held by the National Archives, Record Group 109, Collection of Confederate Records.

33. Patrick Ronayne Cleburne.
Papers, 1823-1901; 22 items.

Personal correspondence between Major General Patrick Ronayne Cleburne and family members and military officers. Post-war documents are primarily letters from family members and pages from the Cleburne family Bible. Cleburne, an Irish immigrant who settled in Helena (Phillips County), rose from the ranks during the course of the Civil War and was killed in the battle of Franklin, Tennessee, 1864. Five of the letters in this collection were published by Richard Howell Purdue and Elizabeth Purdue in Pat Cleburne: Confederate General: A Definitive Biography (Hillsboro, Texas: Hill Junior College Press, 1973).

34. Danford D. Cole.
Letters, 1865-1866, and legal file, 1892-1909; 37 items.

Twenty-two letters from Private Danford D. Cole, Company H, Twelfth Michigan Infantry, to his wife, Eunice, in Andover, New York. Four letters, March 2-24, 1865, are from Camp Blair, Jackson, Michigan. Four letters, dated May 15-June 1, 1865, are from DuVall's Bluff (Prairie County). The balance, dated July 4, 1865, to January 4, 1866, are from Washington (Hempstead County) and Camden (Ouachita County). The letters comment on the feelings of the civilian population of Arkansas and their reactions to the end of the war, including a few interesting incidents of continued resistance after the closing of hostilities. The legal documents pertain to Eunice Cole's efforts in securing a widow's pension from the Federal government after Danford's death.

35. Confederate States of America.
Indian treaties, 1861-1864; 1 roll.

Printed copies with marginalia of treaties made between the Confederate States government and various Indian tribes. Microfilm copy of original documents held by the National Archives, Record Group 109, Collection of Confederate Records.

36. Confederate States of America. Secretary of War.
Letters and telegrams, 1861-1865; 3 rolls.

Selections dealing with Arkansas include letters sent, telegrams sent, and letters and telegrams received. Microfilm copy of original documents held by the National Archives, Record Group 109, Collection of Confederate Records.

37. Confederate States Army. District of the Indian Territory.
Miscellaneous papers, 1863-1865; 1 roll.

Inside circulars, letters transmitting muster rolls, correspondence relating to prisoners, dispatches concerning Federal raids, and copies of papers relating to the truce between the United States and the Confederate Indian tribes. Microfilm copy of original documents held by the National Archives, Record Group 109, Collection of Confederate Records.

38. Confederate States Army. District of the Indian Territory.
Letters sent, 1863-1865; 1 roll.

Chronologically-arranged copies of outgoing communications. Microfilm copy of original documents held by the National Archives, Record Group 109, Collection of Confederate Records.

39. Confederate States Army. Staff Officers.
Selected compiled records, 1861-1865; 2 rolls.

Selected files of citizens and Confederate military officers, mostly pertaining to Arkansas. The following are represented in these records: F. C. Armstrong, S. M. Barton, W. N. R. Beall, N. B. Burrow, D. W. Carroll, W. L. Cabell, Thomas J. Churchill, P. R. Cleburne, Wm. A. Crawford, S. W. Davis, T. P. Dockery, James P. Eagle, James F. Fagan, Harris Flanagin, Pleasant Fowler, E. W. Gantt, D. C. Govan, Thomas M. Gunter, Alex T. Hawthorn, Thomas C. Hindman, John H. Kelly, James McIntosh, Evander McNair, Dandridge McRae, Van H. Manning, William C. Mitchell, James C. Monroe, T. J. Morgan, M. Monroe Parsons, N. B. Pearce, Charles W. Phifer, Albert Pike, Lucius Polk, Lee M. Ramsaur, Frank A. Rector, Daniel H. Reynolds, John Selden Roane, A. Rust, S. S. Scott, John C. Tappan, L. M. Walker, Memphis and Little Rock Railroad. Microfilm copy of original documents held by the National Archives, Record Group 109, Collection of Confederate Records.

40. Confederate States Army. Trans-Mississippi Department.
General and special orders, 1862-1865; 6 rolls.

The Trans-Mississippi Department was established in May 1862 and included territories which were formerly designated as the Trans-Mississippi District. Some of the records of both the District and Department are intermingled as a result. Included with the selections are the following: general and special orders issued by commands within the Trans-Mississippi Department, 1862-1863; letters sent to General Thomas J. Churchill's Division, January-May, 1865; special orders and letters sent by Brigadier General Joseph O. Shelby's command, 1864; letters sent, District of Arkansas, 1864-1865; confidential letters and telegrams sent, Trans-Mississippi Department, 1865; general orders, Trans-Mississippi Department, 1863-1865; special orders, Trans-Mississippi Department, 1862-1865; orders and circulars, Trans-Mississippi Department, 1861-1865; letters sent, Trans-Mississippi Department, 1863-1865. Microfilm copy of original documents held by the National Archives, Group 109, Collection of Confederate Records.

41. Confederate States Army. Trans-Mississippi Department.
Military orders, 1862; 4 items.

Four military orders issued from the Arkansas headquarters of the Trans-Mississippi Department in December 1862. Special Order 60, Headquarters, First Corps, Camp near Fort Smith (Sebastian County), December 3, 1862, by command of Major General Thomas C. Hindman, signed by R. C. Newton, assistant adjutant general, authorizing Major Thomas Lanigan, chief commissary, to send sufficient provisions to Randolph's battalion for it to reach Fort Smith from Fort Arbuckle, traveling twenty miles per day; Special Order 117, Headquarters, Little Rock, December 20, 1862, by command of Major General Theophilus Holmes, signed by S. S. Anderson, assistant adjutant general, ordering Mr. Burney, appointed purchasing agent by Brigadier General Albert Pike, to turn over to Captain Jonathan Frailey all contracts for and purchases of, subsistence stores made under his appointment from General Pike; Special Order 71, Headquarters, First Corps, Camp near Van Buren (Crawford County) December 21, 1862, by command of Major General Thomas Hindman, signed by R. C. Newton, chief of staff, relieving Captain Meyers as quartermaster and commissary at Fort Washita and assigning Captain Welch in replacement; Special Order 74, Headquarters, First Corps, Camp near Van Buren, December 24, 1862, by command of Major General Thomas Hindman, signed by R. C. Newton, chief of staff, ordering Mr. C. B. Johnson subsistence and quartermaster agent to take charge of all transport at Fort Washita.

42. Confederate Veterans Camp List.
Roster, 1936; 1 item.

Printed list with marginal corrections giving the number, name, and location of Confederate veteran headquarters (camps) in 1936. Finding aid available online.

43. Gertrude Fallin Cook.
Family papers, 1830-1878; 24 items.

Letters, receipts, deeds, and miscellaneous documents pertaining to the Bloyd-Combs-Corum-Fallin-McMurtry-Tigard families of Washington County. This collection includes a December 16, 1862, oath of allegiance signed by Fayetteville resident Joel A. Combs and a discharge certificate for Private Robert R. Fallin, Company F, First Arkansas Cavalry (Union), dated August 23, 1865.

44. Micah S. Crosswell.
Letters, 1865-1866; 9 items.

Letters written from Fort Smith (Sebastian County) by Rev. Micah S. Crosswell, an employee of the Freedmen's Bureau, his wife, Mary, and a cattle dealer named M. Ferguson, to Crosswell family members in Farmington Falls, Maine. The letters pertain to the disposition of cattle overseen by Crosswell and Ferguson, the issuance of rations to black refugees, and living conditions in post-war Fort Smith. Persons to whom the letters refer include General John B. Sandborn and Colonel Marshal LaRue Harrison, First Arkansas Cavalry (Union).

45. W. A. Crouch.
Letters, 1862; 2 items.

Letters, dated October 13 and 26, 1862, from Private W. A. Crouch, Chrisman's Arkansas Cavalry Battalion, stationed in Cotton Plant (Woodruff County), to his wife at Batesville. Crouch describes in considerable detail his part in a raid on a Union army forage expedition near Helena (Phillips County) on October 25, 1862.

46. M. S. Crowell.
Letters, 1864-1865; 2 items.

Crowell, a Federal quartermaster officer, wrote to William H. Houlton, Company E, Eighth Minnesota Infantry, from Fayetteville (Washington County), August 19, 1864, and Fort Smith (Sebastian County), December 26, 1865. Crowell's Fayetteville letter describes local conditions, clashes with bushwhackers, and reactions to gossip from Houlton's regiment. Crowell's Fort Smith letter mentions the garrison troops at that location and at Fort Gibson, Indian Territory, and his efforts in securing a furlough. Typewritten transcriptions of original letters held by the Minnesota Historical Society.

47. Josephene B. Crump.
Papers and journal, 1894-1920; 26 items.

Literary manuscripts, reminiscences, and a journal created by Josephene B. Crump, a Civil War resident of Harrison (Boone County) and Little Rock (Pulaski County). Born in 1840, Josephene married a Boone County man named T. J. Greenlee who enlisted in Company D, Twenty-seventh Arkansas Infantry. Greenlee returned to Boone County in the summer of 1863 to escort Josephene and his daughter to Little Rock, where he worked as an attendant at the military hospital at St. John's College. Josephene assisted him in this work until the capture of the city by Union troops and Greenlee's subsequent imprisonment at the Little Rock penitentiary. Greenlee was later transferred to a prison at Johnson's Island, Ohio, where he remained until the end of the war. The journal in this collection was kept intermittently from 1894 to 1920, but in the 1890s, Josephene wrote about her Civil War experiences which include impressions of her life in Little Rock, an account of the battle of Jenkins' Ferry (Grant County) which she attributes to Dr. H. L. Routh, and an incomplete description of the battle of Pea Ridge (Benton County) credited to Joe Wright Crump, likely a relative of her second husband, George Crump. Finding aid available online.

48. James B. Currie.
Ledger, 1851-1869; 1 volume.

Ledger kept by James B. Currie of Woodruff County recording merchandise transactions, a tally of cotton picked by slaves, and sales receipts. Most of the entries are dated 1851-1852, with additions made in the 1860s. One laid-in contract fragment is a share-cropper agreement dated 1867. Some of the entries made in the Civil War years appear to be sales to Confederate officers. See relate Currie Family Papers.

49. Rebecca Stirman Davidson.
Letters and papers, 1860-1958; 130 items.

Correspondence, printed materials, and a photograph pertaining to the Rebecca Stirman Davidson and John Turner Stinson families of Fayetteville (Washington County). Rebecca Stirman Davidson (1843-1912) was a lifetime resident of Fayetteville. She, along with her brothers, William and Erasmus (Ras), were orphaned at an early age and raised by their aunt, Mary Stirman Pollard. Rebecca attended Sophia Sawyer's school in the decade preceding the Civil War, while her older brother, Ras, attended Arkansas College and clerked in a dry goods store. In 1861 Ras enlisted as a private in the Pike Guards, a local militia unit, and marched north with other Southern troops to engage in the Wilson's Creek campaign of southwest Missouri. Rebecca remained at Fayetteville for most of the war years, leaving once in early 1862 after the town was burned by Confederate forces and finally banished by the Union occupation forces in 1864 for aiding the enemy. Ras stayed with the army until 1865, eventually becoming captain of Company E, First Battalion of Arkansas Cavalry, and colonel of his own regiment of sharpshooters. Of particular interest in this collection are forty letters written by Ras Stirman to his sister from 1860 to 1863 describing his pre-war travels to Texas and Missouri, his combat experiences at Wilson's Creek and Corinth, Mississippi, and his camp life at locations in Mississippi and Arkansas. Most of these letters have been published by Pat Carr in In Fine Spirits (Fayetteville: Washington County Historical Society, 1986). Two other Confederate soldiers wrote to Rebecca during the war: Lieutenant George Taylor, Company H, Seventeenth Arkansas Infantry, and W. A. Forbes, a soldier from an unidentified regiment. Taylor wrote in January and February 1862 while serving with the combined forces of generals Price and McCulloch in the Boston Mountains prior to the battle of Pea Ridge (Benton County). Forbes wrote in January 1864 while being held prisoner by the Union army at Bowling Green, Kentucky. Finding aid available online.

50. Samuel Wilson Davies.
Biographical material, 1884-1921; 4 items.

Typewritten copies of a sermon, letter, biographical sketch, and church history pertaining to Rev. Samuel Wilson Davies, a Fayetteville (Washington County) Presbyterian clergyman. During the Civil War, Davies lived in Cotton Plant (Woodruff County), and aside from a brief stint in the Confederate army in 1865, he spent the entire war working as a minister. The documents include a copy of a 1921 letter written by Lou Wilson Goodwin describing her childhood in antebellum North Carolina, and an undated autobiographical sketch by Rev. Davies which mentions his Civil War activities in Arkansas.

 
51. Jeff Davis.
Papers, 1849-1986; 6 linear feet.

Correspondence, literary productions, scrapbooks, printed materials, and other documents pertaining to Jeff Davis (1862-1913), governor of Arkansas from 1901 to 1907 and United States senator from 1907 to 1913. Davis was born at Rocky Comfort to a former Confederate army chaplain who named him for the Southern president. Civil War related materials can be found in both the personal and the political papers in the Davis collection. In the family correspondence are twelve letters written between 1859 and 1862 by relatives of Davis's wife, Ina McKenzie Thatch Davis. These letters were written to Ina's mother, Jane E. Norment of Pine Bluff (Jefferson County) from her brother, Wilbur F. Norment, and her future husband, Duncan G. L. McKenzie. Wilbur was a resident of Washington, D.C., and wrote to Jane from that place on December 9, 1859, and on July 16, 1861. A third letter from Wilbur was written from Camden (Ouachita County) in 1861. Duncan McKenzie was a preacher and wrote nine letters to Jane from Little Rock (Pulaski County) between September 7, 1860, and January 11, 1862, while he was in the city attending religious conferences. Although many of Duncan's letters are personal in nature, he did describe the city's mood during the secession convention of 1861. Among the political papers in the Jeff Davis collection are case files concerning Arkansas residents who asked for the senator's assistance in reparation claims against the Federal government for confiscated and destroyed property during the Civil War. Finding aid available online.

52. Archibald S. Dobbins.
Collection, 1852-1965; 47 items.

Correspondence, military commission, land and legal records, photographs, and other records pertaining to Colonel Archibald S. Dobbins, First (Dobbins) Arkansas Cavalry. Originally from Tennessee, Dobbins entered the Confederate service at Phillips County in late 1862 as an aide-de-camp to Major General Thomas C. Hindman and later became colonel of his own regiment of cavalry. Involved in the squabble between generals Walker and Marmaduke during the capture of Little Rock, Dobbins was court-martialled and relieved of command on November 23, 1863. He finished out the war in the Trans-Mississippi, and following his surrender on July 15, 1865, at Galveston, Texas, Dobbins made plans to emigrate to Brazil. He settled near Santarem, Brazil, in 1867 and made arrangements for his family to follow him in exile before his disappearance sometime after 1870. Of the twenty-one letters in the collection, only two were written during the war, one dated February 3, 1862, from merchants Coleman and Withirs of New Orleans to Dobbins discussing produce prices, and another dated August 10, 1864, from O. H. Oates, Washington (Hempstead County), to B. W. Green, (Phillips County), discussing election procedures for county and state races. The balance of the letters are from Dobbins to his wife immediately following the war outlining his plans to move to Brazil, and letters from Dobbins while residing in Brazil. Post-war correspondence also includes twentieth-century letters from parties interested in Dobbins's ultimate fate in South America and the disposition of his property.

53. Albert Dunlap.
Ledger and journal, 1861-1870; 2 volumes.

Financial records and medical notes of Dr. Albert Dunlap regarding his medical practice as a Confederate army surgeon at Monticello (Drew County) and Washington (Hempstead County), and as a Fort Smith (Sebastian County) private physician from 1867 to 1870. Dunlap's Civil War volume has detailed reports of purchases and rations distributed in the hospitals under his charge, and some individual patient records.

54. Fontaine Richard Earle.
Letters, 1861-1908; 87 items.

Positive photocopies of letters written or received by Reverend Fontaine Richard Earle, or his wife, Amanda Buchanan Earle, of Cane Hill (Washington County). Earle was a Cumberland Presbyterian minister who initially enlisted in the Arkansas state troops at the outbreak of hostilities and saw action at Wilson's Creek, Missouri, in 1861. He was mustered out shortly after the battle and returned to Cane Hill, but in 1862 Earle raised a company of volunteers from the area which became designated as Company B, Thirty-fourth Arkansas Infantry. He fought at Prairie Grove (Washington County), Helena (Phillips County) and Jenkins' Ferry (Grant County) during the war, eventually attaining the rank of major. Following the end of the war, Earle returned to Cane Hill where he assumed the presidency of Cane Hill College and for many years was the highest ranking Confederate veteran living in northwest Arkansas. Much of the wartime correspondence in this collection has been published by Robert E. Waterman and Thomas Rothrock in "The Earle-Buchanan Letters, 1861-1877," Arkansas Historical Quarterly 33 (Summer 1974): 99-174. Finding aid available online.

55. Fontaine Richard Earle.
Military and other records, 1858-1908; 1 roll.

Microfilm copy of twelve items including muster rolls, rosters, clothing and pay accounts, and reports written by Major Fontaine Richard Earle, Company B, Thirty-fourth Arkansas Infantry. The collection also includes an autobiographical sketch written by Earle in 1893 and a memorial prepared by local Confederate veterans following Earle's death in 1908.

56. Clyde T. Ellis.
Papers, 1939-1941; 50 items.

Letters between U. S. Congressman Clyde T. Ellis and the National Park Service pertaining to the development of a military park on the site of the Pea Ridge (Benton County) battlefield. Some letters mention site analysis in relation to historical events. Finding aid available online.

57. Clara B. Eno.
Papers, 1852-1871; 1 roll.

This collection includes letters, statements, forms, receipts, account ledger sheets, and clippings pertaining to the Van Buren (Crawford County) business establishments of David C. Williams, 1852-1871, and Dr. Henri Pernot, 1852-1870. Microfilm copy of original documents held by the Arkansas History Commission.

58. Clara Bertha Eno.
Papers, 1830-1947; 176 items.

Correspondence, bills of lading, statements, receipts, legal documents, reminiscences, and other papers collected by Clara B. Eno. Among the papers is an undated manuscript essay, "Reconstruction Days in Arkansas," and wartime financial documents mentioning David Walker, J. Henry Williams, and Jesse Turner of Washington and Crawford counties.

59. Faucette Family.
Genealogical information, 1700s-1987; 4 volumes.

Four notebooks consisting of positive photocopies of family charts, wills, legal documents, photographs, letters, newspaper clippings and other materials pertaining to the Faucette, Old, Leard, Peck, and related families of North Carolina, South Carolina, and Arkansas. Among the Civil War papers are: an October 29, 1863, letter from Sergeant Thomas Ray Faucette, Company F, Sixth North Carolina Infantry, then stationed near Culpepper Court House, Virginia; a surrender release signed on May 24, 1865, by Private George C. Faucette, Thirty-first North Carolina Infantry; enlistment record of Private Sanders Walkers Leard, Company A, First Arkansas Mounted Rifles; service record and pension claims of Private John C. Sagely, Company L, Second Arkansas Cavalry (Union); and service record of Private Joseph M. Sagely, Company G, First Arkansas Infantry (King's Regiment of Arkansas Infantry). Finding aid available online.

60. Homer F. Fellows.
Commission and bond, 1861; 2 items.

Commission issued to Fellows on July 17, 1861, as a register of the United States Land Office in Springfield, Missouri, bearing the autograph of President Abraham Lincoln; unsigned performance bond partially executed by Fellows, undated.

61. First Arkansas Mounted Rifles. Company D.
Account book, 1861-1862; 1 roll.

Book showing the names of soldiers, articles of clothing issued, and cost, along with an alphabetical index of names. Microfilm copies of original documents held by the National Archives, Record Group 109, Collection of Confederate Records.

62. Harris Flanagin.
Papers, 1861-1874; 1 roll.

The selected documents on this film include many letters written to Harris Flanagin during the war from David Walker, Gradison D. Royston, William E. Woodruff, Jr., and Albert Pike. Post-war correspondence pertains to many Reconstruction events, including the Brooks-Baxter war of 1874. Flanagin was an attorney, soldier, and the seventh governor of Arkansas. Originally from New Jersey, he moved to Arkansas in 1839, eventually settling in Arkadelphia (Clark County). When the war broke out he accepted a commission as captain of Company E, Second Arkansas Mounted Rifles, and saw combat at Wilson's Creek and Pea Ridge (Benton County). Flanagin's regiment was transferred east of the Mississippi in 1862 and he was elected its colonel. He was nominated for governor during the election of 1862 and easily defeated Henry Massey Rector for the post. During his administration, the Federals occupied Little Rock and forced Flanagin to establish a government in exile in Washington (Hempstead County) for the remainder of the war. Microfilm copies of original documents held by the Arkansas History Commission.

63. Susan Bricelin Fletcher.
Memoir, circa 1908; 1 item.

Mrs. Fletcher's typewritten account of Arkansas civilian war experiences from a Southern viewpoint contains a detailed description of her neighborhood in Little Rock. Topics covered in the manuscript are slavery, medicine, civilian hardships, the Brooks-Baxter war, and the behavior of Union troops. Persons mentioned include Major General Frederick Steele and Mrs. Powell Clayton. After the enlistment of her husband in the Confederate service, Mrs. Fletcher was left alone on her Pulaski County plantation to manage the home with the assistance of the family slaves. During the course of the war, the Fletcher plantation was visited on numerous occasions by Union troops, and the pilfering she endured forced her eventual removal to Little Rock by May 1864. She remained in the city for only a few months before securing a pass to visit her husband in Washington (Hempstead County) and spent the balance of the war south of Camden (Ouachita County). The Fletcher plantation was burned during the conflict, and the family lived on the outskirts of Little Rock after the war.

64. Fort Smith, Arkansas.
Documents and papers, 1848-1908; 28 items.

Register, lists, certificate, clippings, statements, promissory notes, and other documents pertaining to the commercial, social, political, and military history of Fort Smith (Sebastian County) and vicinity. Included is a printed invitation to a "secession ball" to honor Robert Ward Johnson, representative to the Confederate Congress, to be held at Fort Smith on April 22, 1861. This invitation was sent to Van Buren attorney Jesse Turner, who added marginalia to the envelope.

65. Fort Smith National Historic Site.
Records, 1953-1976; 165 items.

Correspondence, reports, and photographs pertaining to the establishment of the Fort Smith National Historic Site (Sebastian County) in 1961 and its restoration in the 1970s. The collection contains historical reports on the site, including its Civil War record, by Paul Wolfe and J. C. Harrington. Finding aid available online.

66. Futrall Family.
Papers, 1831-1985; 3 1/2 linear feet.

Correspondence, papers, and photographs pertaining to the John C. Futrall family of Fayetteville (Washington County). Futrall was president of the University of Arkansas from 1913 to 1939. The collection consists of papers created or collected by himself, his ancestors, and his descendants and include four letters written during the Civil War to his mother, Emma R. Headen Futrall, by a friend identified only as "Mollie" living near Pittsburg, North Carolina. The letters, dated from July 12, 1864, to March 25, 1865, allude to North Carolina politics and war rumors. Finding aid available online.

67. Charles William Fry.
Notebook, 1863-1883; 1 item.

Positive photocopy of a transcription of a notebook kept by Captain Charles William Fry, Fry's Company of Virginia Light Artillery (Orange Artillery). Captain Fry took part in many fights in Virginia during the war and kept a record of ordinance expenditures, officer's mess accounts, poetry, and engineering computations. Included is a roster of officers and men of Fry's unit.

68. James A. Garfield.
Papers, 1839-1884; 177 rolls.

James A. Garfield was twentieth president of the United States. During the Civil War he served as colonel of the Forty-second Ohio Infantry until his promotion to brigadier general in January 1862. The following year he obtained the rank of major general but resigned on December 5 when he was elected to the U. S. House of Representatives. During his military career, Garfield participated in the battles of Shiloh, Tennessee, and Middle Creek and Pound Gap, Kentucky. This extensive collection consists of diaries, correspondence, legal papers, financial records, shorthand notebooks, speeches, articles, scrapbooks, and memorabilia covering Garfield's life and career. A printed index of correspondence is included. Microfilm copy of original documents held by the Library of Congress.

69. John R. Gibbons.
Diary and letter, 1862-1863; 2 items.

The diary consists of brief entries kept by Private John R. Gibbons, Company I, First (Rockbridge) Virginia Cavalry, while on duty from January 1 to October 16, 1862, in northern Virginia. The entries pertain to places such as Culpepper Court House and Brandy Station, Virginia, and are very terse. For example, Gibbons describes the battle of Antietam, Maryland, as "a very hard fight" with no further elaboration. A copy of a letter, dated Mount Solon, Augusta County, Virginia, October 3, 1863, is also included. Written by a cousin identified only as "Sue," the letter describes local gossip, Sue's teaching activities, and a reaction to Gibbons's assertion of trading with Union soldiers while on picket duty. Typed transcript.

70. Orville Gillet.
Diary, 1861-1865; 1 roll.

The collection consists of three diaries: October 11, 1861, to May 9, 1862; January 1 to December 31, 1864; and January 1 to October 25, 1865. Sergeant Orville Gillet's entries are extremely terse, providing little description of combat activities. However, the volumes also contain photographs of soldiers from the Third Michigan, steamboats operating in Arkansas, and buildings at DuVall's Bluff (Prairie County) and Little Rock (Pulaski County). Gillet also drew two maps of the New Madrid area and kept notations of some of his expenses in 1862. Typed transcripts of the last two diaries are included. Gillet, Company B, Third Michigan Cavalry, enlisted in the Union army in October 1861 at Grand Rapids, Michigan. He left with his regiment for St. Louis on November 28 and was stationed at Benton Barracks until February 1862, when the Third Michigan was called into duty to assist in the siege of New Madrid, Missouri, and the capture of Island Number 10. Orville next accompanied his regiment during the advance to Corinth, Mississippi, in early May. Sergeant Gillet stayed with the Third Michigan until October 1864, when he resigned to accept a commission as a second lieutenant of Company G, Third Arkansas Cavalry (Union). While in Arkansas, Gillet was stationed at Little Rock, Lewisburg, Cadron (Conway County), Brownsville (Prairie County), and DuVall's Bluff. Microfilm copy of originals held by the Arkansas History Commission.

71. Ariel Idella Hottel Gist.
Papers, 1892-1898, 1923-1932; 63 items.

Journals, correspondence, photographs, and papers created or collected by Ariel Idella Hottel Gist of Marianna (Lee County). Mrs. Gist was a governess to the U. S. consul in the Danish West Indies from 1892 to 1893, and the daughter of William F. Hottel (1841-1923), a former private in Company E, Eleventh Virginia Cavalry. The collection includes a printed roster of Company E and newspaper obituaries of Hottel.

72. Ulysses S. Grant.
Papers, 1844-1883; 32 rolls.

Ulysses S. Grant was eighteenth president of the United States and, during the Civil War, colonel of the Twenty-first Illinois Infantry, and general-in-chief of the Armies of the United States. The papers have been organized into seven series and include personal correspondence, general correspondence, military headquarters records, speeches, and scrapbooks. A printed index of correspondents is included. Microfilm copy of original documents held by the Library of Congress.

73. L. H. Graves.
Diaries, May 1, 1861-April 1, 1864; 1 roll.

First Lieutenant L. H. Graves, Company K, Sixth Texas Cavalry, began keeping his diary when he first set out from Texas to join the command of Brigadier General Benjamin McCulloch in 1861. He was present at the battle of Pea Ridge (Benton County) on March 6-7, 1862, and followed his regiment east of the Mississippi during the weeks following the engagement. Seriously wounded in the fighting at Corinth, Mississippi, on October 3-4, 1862, Graves spent the next months recuperating as a prisoner of the Federals at Iuka, Mississippi. He did not rejoin his regiment until May 1, 1863, at Shelbyville, Tennessee. The diary contains descriptions of the two battles, of Brigadier General Benjamin McCulloch, and glimpses of Graves's home life prior to his enlistment at McKinney, Texas. Microfilm copy of a typed transcript.

74. Gregg Family.
Papers, 1853-1983; 2 linear feet.

Family correspondence, legal files, and photographs pertaining to the Lafayette Gregg family of Fayetteville (Washington County). Lafayette Gregg (1825-1891) was an attorney, soldier, Arkansas Supreme Court justice, president of the Bank of Fayetteville, and one of the founding fathers of the Arkansas Industrial University (University of Arkansas). Most of the materials in this collection pertain to Lafayette's descendents in the early twentieth century, but a small group of records concern his service as colonel commanding the Fourth Arkansas Cavalry (Union). These records include the following: a medical statement dated January 1863, exempting Lafayette from service in the local militia; a travel pass and bond issued to Lafayette for a trip to Little Rock (Pulaski County) to consult with Governor Harris Flanagin in May 1863; two orders pertaining to the Fourth Arkansas Cavalry and its operations around Little Rock; and an offical discharge certificate issued to Lafayette Gregg in June 1865. Finding aid available online.

75. Haney Family.
Papers, 1845-1887; 67 items.

Positive photocopies of letters, legal documents, financial documents, and miscellaneous papers pertaining to the Samuel Haney family of Huntsville (Madison County). Included in the correspondence are seven letters written to Haney between 1863 and 1865. Five of the letters are from Haney's brother-in-law, John W. Bowen, a corporal in Company B, First Arkansas Infantry (Union). Bowen was stationed in the Fort Smith (Sebastian County) area and Madison County during the war. Another letter is from Josephus Upton, a private in Company B who was also from Madison County. The last Civil War letter is from W. M. Hale, a young carpenter from Huntsville who was detained by Federal troops in December 1863 when he was passing through Fayetteville (Washington County) on the way to Fort Smith. The collection also contains Haney's 1863 oath of allegiance to the Federal government. Finding aid available online.

76. Albert Harris.
Letters, 1864-1866; 35 items.

Albert Harris, a civilian employee of the Office of Chief Quartermaster, Department of Arkansas, United States Army, wrote to his relations in St. Johnsbury, Vermont, while working in Little Rock (Pulaski County). The letters, which date from August 7, 1864, to May 21, 1866, discuss in detail his activities in organizing laborers, his relationships with civilians, and living conditions in the city. Of particular interest are his comments concerning black workers and soldiers in the area. While some letters mention military movements, Harris was not an eyewitness to any of them. The last letter in the collection was sent from Fort Smith (Sebastian County) where Harris had stopped temporarily while accompanying a government wagon train to Santa Fe, New Mexico. Positive photocopies of original letters held by the Vermont Historical Society.

77. Benjamin Harrison.
Papers, 1787-1901; 134 rolls.

Benjamin Harrison was twenty-third president of the United States and, during the Civil War, colonel of the Seventieth Indiana Infantry. This extensive collection consists of correspondence, legal papers, financial records, shorthand notebooks, speeches, articles, scrapbooks, and memorabilia. Included are letters he wrote to his wife and family while serving in the Union army from 1861 to 1865. A printed index of correspondence is included. Microfilm copy of original documents held by the Library of Congress.

78. James M. Harrison.
Letters, 1861-1865; 1 roll.

Third Lieutenant James M. Harrison, Company H, Fifteenth (McRae's/Hobb's) Arkansas Infantry, was from a Washington County family living in the Cane Hill area. He enlisted early in the conflict with the Third Regiment, First Corps, Army of Arkansas, under the command of Colonel John R. Gratiot. This unit saw combat at Wilson's Creek, Missouri, on August 10, 1861, and subsequently disbanded when integrated into units of the regular Confederate army. Harrison again faced the enemy's fire at the battle of Pea Ridge (Benton County) on March 6-7, 1862. After that fight, he marched with his unit to Des Arc (Prairie County) where they boarded the steamboat Sovereign, landing in Memphis, Tennessee, on April 11, 1862. The next destination for the Fifteenth was Corinth, Mississippi, and the regiment saw the balance of its service in that state. Harrison became seriously ill in the fall of 1862 and was not present with his command at the battle of Corinth, Mississippi, on October 3-4, 1862, but he did rejoin them for operations on the Mississippi Central Rail Road from Bolivar, Tennessee, to Coffeeville, Mississippi (Grant's Central Mississippi Campaign), October 31, 1862, to January 10, 1863. Lieutenant Harrison was seriously wounded at the battle of Port Gibson, Mississippi, May 1, 1863, and captured by the enemy after the retreat of his regiment. He never fully recovered from the wound, and he died after the surrender of Vicksburg on July 4, 1863. His body was returned to Washington County and buried at the Confederate Cemetery at Fayetteville. Private Richard P. Harrison, Company K, Thirty-fourth Arkansas Infantry, was the younger brother of James. He entered the Confederate service in 1862 when many Cane Hill residents enlisted in a company raised by Fontaine Richard Earle. Private Harrison participated in the battle of Prairie Grove (Washington County), December 7, 1862, and spent the next year of his military service in central Arkansas. He participated in the battle of Helena (Phillips County) July 4, 1863, and helped defend Little Rock (Pulaski County) prior to its capture later that year. In 1864, Private Harrison transferred to the Fourth Confederate Engineer Corps and spent the remainder of the war repairing bridges in the extreme southwest corner of Arkansas. The collection contains letters from both Harrison brothers during the war, along with two written in Little Rock during 1863 by Private W. T. Dyer, Company K, Thirty-fourth Arkansas Infantry, and one from Miss Fannie Harrison, Green Grove (Conway County), dated March 8, 1863. Microfilm copies of original letters, origin unknown.

79. Eugene B. Henry.
Commission, 1874; 1 item.

Military commission signed by Governor Elisha Baxter, appointing Henry a colonel in the Arkansas State Guards, April 21, 1874.

80. John D. Henry.
Papers, 1861-1881; 6 items.

The earliest letter in this collection is from Private John L. Russell, Company C, Sixth Arkansas Infantry, dated July 7, 1861, from Pocahontas (Randolph County). Russell was a volunteer, probably from Dallas County, who may have been related to the John D. Henry family, the principal subjects of this collection. The letter describes camp life, food, visitations from civilians, and rumors. Finding aid available online.

81. Daniel Harvey Hill.
Papers, 1816-1924; 4 rolls.

Daniel Harvey Hill began his Civil War career as colonel of the First North Carolina Infantry, was promoted to brigadier general on March 26, 1862, and finished the war as a major general. He took part in the battles of Big Bethel, Seven Pines, South Mountain, Antietam, and Chickamauga, among many others. In 1877, Hill assumed the presidency of the Arkansas Industrial University (University of Arkansas). Microfilm copies of original letters, maps, clippings, and speeches held by the North Carolina Department of Archives and History.

82. Thomas Carmichael Hindman.
Prairie Grove and northwest Arkansas maps, 1862; 2 items.

Maps showing the position of troops at the battle of Prairie Grove (Washington County) December 7, 1862, and principal towns and roadways in northwest Arkansas, 1862, drawn by a member of General Hindman's staff. Negative photocopies of two original manuscript maps held by the National Archives, Record Group 109, Collection of Confederate Records.

83. Theophilus Hunter Holmes.
Military documents, 1862-1865; 1 roll.

Lieutenant General Theophilus H. Holmes began his Civil War service as a brigadier general commanding the Southern Department of Coastal Defense. He was present at the first battle of Bull Run and Malvern Hill, Virginia. In October 1862, he received a promotion to major general and was placed in command of the Trans-Mississippi Department. After the battle of Helena (Phillips County) on July 3, 1863, Holmes was sent back to North Carolina where he remained for the rest of the war. Microfilm copy of thiry-five original documents held by Duke University.

84. Theophilus Hunter Holmes.
Private correspondence, 1861-1864; 1 roll.

These papers consist mainly of copies of letters sent to other officers and Confederate government officials from Major General Theophilus H. Holmes. There are very few letters received, and all are arranged chronologically. Microfilm copy of original documents held by the National Archives, Record Group 109, Collection of Confederate Records.

85. Michael A. Hughes.
Research study; 2 items.

Statistical study, completed in 1984, of Arkansas Union army volunteers, including ages, occupations, birthplaces, and place of enlistment.

86. Hughes-McDonald Family.
Papers, 1820-1900; 1 linear foot.

Letters, documents, and photographs pertaining to the Moses Hughes-Allen McDonald families of Franklin County. Moses Hughes (1797-1865) was a farmer and sometime justice of the peace. Among his eight children were George P. Hughes, who served as a private in Company H, Second Arkansas Cavalry (Union), and Polly Ann Hughes, whose stepson, Samuel C. Howell, lived in western Missouri during the late 1850s and may have enlisted in the Southern army when the war broke out. Although none of the correspondence is dated during the war years, the collection does include letters from Howell describing the border strife in his part of Missouri (circa 1856), an ambrotype believed to be of George Hughes (circa 1864), and several civilian travel passes issued by Federal soldiers stationed in Sebastian and Franklin counties to Moses and members of his family. Other pre-war letters from relatives living in Alabama describe farming and slavery in that state during the late 1850s. Finding aid available online.

87. R. M. T. Hunter.
Papers, 1817-1887; 13 rolls.

These selections comprise a segment of the Hunter-Garnett Collection at the University of Virginia and consist of Robert Mercer Taliaferro Hunter's speeches, letters, business papers, and those of his immediate family. Hunter (1809-1887) was a Virginia politician. He served as a member of the U. S. House of Representatives and the U. S. Senate, as the Confederate secretary of state, and as a senator in the Confederate Congress. A complete finding aid, with an extensive index of correspondence, is included. Microfilm copy of selected documents held by the University of Virginia.

88. Huntington Library
Nineteenth-century Arkansas letters and documents, 1821-1896; 36 items.

The wartime documents in this collection include the following: a handwritten copy of an unpublished ordinance passed by the Arkansas Secession Convention, May 22, 1861, providing for the defence of the state's western border and signed by David Walker and Elias C. Boudinot; letters written by Major General Theophilus Holmes from Virginia and North Carolina, 1862; a telegram from Robert Ward Johnson to Thomas C. Hindman; and a series of letters to Missouri Governor Thomas C. Reynolds from John R. Eakin, a Washington (Hempstead County), attorney, 1864-1865. Post-war correspondence, some of which relates to Civil War activities, includes letters from Isaac Murphy, Powell Clayton, James R. Berry, Elias C. Boudinot, Thomas J. Churchill, Hugh F. Thomason, W. W. Watkins, and N. B. Pearce. Positive photocopies from originals held by the Huntington Library. Finding aid available online.

89. Roy G. Hutcheson.
Diary, 1837, 1845, and letters, 1864-1865; 14 items.

Diary fragment kept by an unknown Illinois woman and letters written by members of the M. E. Barnes family of Lee County, Illinois. Nine letters in this collection, dated from April 28, 1864, to April 22, 1865, were written by Private Melzar E. Barnes, a musician serving in Company D, Thirty-fourth Illinois Infantry, to his parents in Lee County, Illinois. Barnes's letters were sent from different locations in Tennessee, Georgia, and North Carolina while he accompanied forces under Lieutenant General William T. Sherman on his famous "march to the sea." The collection also includes a letter from Private Henry M. Barnes, Melzar's brother, also of Company D, Thirty-fourth Illinois Infantry, dated March 12, 1864, at Chattanooga, Tennessee, and another from a sister, Frankie Barnes, who was living at Lee's Centre, Illinois, in 1864. Henry Barnes died of disease at Ackworth, Georgia, on June 24, 1864. Finding aid available online.

90. Illinois State Historical Library.
Selected Arkansas manuscripts, 1838-1865; 88 items.

The collection includes thirty letters written during November and December 1862 by Colonel William Ward Orme, Ninety-fourth Illinois Infantry, to his wife, Nancy. Ward wrote the letters from various points in southwest Missouri and northwest Arkansas, and one, dated December 9, 1862, Prairie Grove (Washington County), contains a description of the battle at that place on December 2. Orme's letters also include one received from David Davis, an employee at the U. S. Marshall's office in Washington, D.C., December 9, 1862, and a copy of an order dated December 19, 1862, Water Valley, Mississippi, pertaining to the Fourth Illinois Cavalry. Other Civil War materials are twelve letters written by Private Henry M. Newhall, Company H, Fourth Iowa Cavalry, from various points in Tennessee, Arkansas, Mississippi, Kentucky, and Missouri during the years 1862 to 1865. One of Newhall's letters, dated June 15, 1864, Memphis, recounts his experiences during the battle of Brice's Cross Roads (Guntown; Tishomingo Creek), Mississippi on June 10, 1864. Letters written from various parties to Major Isaac Reed, a Confederate officer from an unidentified regiment stationed in Little Rock (Pulaski County) during the summer of 1863, are also found in this collection, along with an April 11, 1862, letter written to South Carolina Governor W. F. Peckins from Arkansas Governor Henry M. Rector, and a January 1, 1865, letter from General Ulysses S. Grant to Major General H. W. Halleck. Negative and positive photocopies of original letters held by the Illinois State Historical Library.

91. Sidney D. Jackman.
Memoir, 1883; 1 item.

Typewritten carbon copy entitled "Campaign and Battle of Lone Jack, 1862, 1863, 1864," by Colonel Sidney D. Jackman of Bates County, Missouri. Jackman commanded a company of mounted Southern irregulars during the war and participated in many raids and fights in southern Missouri and northwest Arkansas. Of particular interest is his description of the battle of Lone Jack, Missouri, on August 16, 1862. Jackman not only detailed his own activities during the fight but also identified one of the two men responsible for setting fire to a hotel at Lone Jack which killed all of the Union defenders. Jackman's essay also includes transcriptions of his post-war correspondence with Joseph O. Shelby and other Confederate veterans. Finding aid available online.

92. Thomas Jefferson Jobe.
Diary, May 25-August 6, 1861; 1 roll.

The entries are detailed glimpses of camp life in the opening weeks of the war. Private Thomas Jefferson Jobe's diary ends with the encampment of his regiment at Wilson's Creek, Missouri, just prior to the battle of August 10. The diary also includes what appears to be a complete roster of officers and enlisted men of Company B. Jobe, Company B, First Arkansas Mounted Rifles, was a lawyer from Des Arc (Prairie County) who enlisted in the Southern army in May 1861. He began his diary with his enlistment and kept a faithful record of his activities during his first months of service. Jobe followed his company from their initial muster at Des Arc to Brownsville (Prairie County), Little Rock (Pulaski County), Fort Smith (Sebastian County), Evansville and Cincinnati (Washington County), and Maysville and Camp Walker (Benton County) near the extreme northwest corner of Arkansas. Microfilm copy of an original volume held by the Arkansas History Commission.

93. Andrew Johnson.
Papers, 1814-1900; 55 rolls.

Andrew Johnson was seventeenth president of the United States and, during the Civil War, U. S. senator and military governor of Tennessee. The papers include the following: military documents of organizations commanded by Colonel Robert Johnson, First Tennessee Cavalry, 1862-1865; courtmartial and amnesty records, 1864-1869; and general correspondence, 1841-1891. A printed index of correspondents is included and lists virtually every important political personality connected with the early Reconstruction era. Microfilm copy of original documents held by the Library of Congress.

94. Charles B. Johnson.
Papers, 1859-1865; 47 items.

Letters, contracts, receipts, invoices, military orders, and other documents pertaining to Charles B. Johnson, a civilian contractor with the Confederate States Army for provisioning Reserve Indians and troops in the Trans-Mississippi Department. Johnson, in partnership with Marshall Grimes, was engaged in trade in the Indian Territory prior to the war and continued his business operations once the area passed into Confederate hands. He also worked at various locations in Arkansas and Texas. Correspondents and persons to whom the documents relate include Brigadier General Albert Pike, Major William Quesenbury, Major Thomas Lanigan, Colonel Robert C. Newton, Major General Thomas C. Hindman, and Major General Theophilus H. Holmes. Places to which the documents relate include Fort Smith (Sebastian County), Little Rock (Pulaski County), Prairie Grove (Washington County), Van Buren (Crawford County), and Waldron (Scott County); Bonham, Mansfield, Paris, and Sherman, Texas; Washington, D.C.; and Fort Washita, Indian Territory.

95. Andrew Johnston.
Letter, February 1, 1863; 1 item.

Letter written by Johnston from Helena (Phillips County) to an unidentified "Dear Sir." Andrew Johnston was a Union soldier from an unknown regiment who arrived at Helena from Columbus, Kentucky, on January 14, 1863. He was immediately assigned to accompany troops under Brigadier General Willis Gorman on an expedition up the White River to St. Charles (Arkansas County) and DuVall's Bluff (Prairie County). In his letter, Johnston describes the expedition, along with his earlier impressions of Memphis, Tennessee, where he stopped for a few hours prior to arriving in Arkansas.

96. Joseph Hubbard Jones.
Memoir; 1 item.

Positive photocopy of reminiscences entitled "Sketch of My Army Life from 1861 to 1865," by Corporal Joseph Hubbard Jones, Company D, First Arkansas Infantry. Apparently written in the late nineteenth century, this autobiographical essay by Jones is a thumbnail sketch of his military experiences during the war and includes very little detail.

97. G. A. Koerner.
Collection, 1865; 3 items.

This collection includes an account record book kept by Captain Joseph F. Fuess, Forty-third Illinois Infantry, recording the expenses of the regiment's officer's mess in Little Rock (Pulaski County) from May to October 1865. Finding aid available online.

98. Matthew Leeper.
Letter, 1861; 1 item.

Letter, dated October 31, 1861, from Indian Agent Matthew Leeper to J. J. Sturm, Wichita Agency Commissary, regarding ration issues to the reserve Indians.

99. Walter John Lemke.
Papers, 1821-1969; 23 linear feet.

Correspondence, scrapbooks, photographs, maps, bulletins, newspapers, and other materials created, received, or collected by Walter J. Lemke (1891-1968), a University of Arkansas journalism professor. In addition to his career as a teacher, Lemke was an avid historian who helped establish the Washington County Historical Society and the Prairie Grove Battlefield Commission. Most of the material in the Lemke collection directly relates to his activities as a teacher and journalist, but also included are: research files concerning the battles of Fayetteville (Washington County), Pea Ridge (Benton County), and Prairie Grove (Washington County); copies of miscellaneous letters, reports, diaries and newspaper accounts written from 1861 to 1866; and notes concerning the Southern Memorial Association of Washington County. Among the hundreds of photographs in the collection are portraits of Thomas C. Hindman, Elias C. Boudinot, members of the David Walker family, and Mrs. Jefferson Davis. Among the copies of original correspondence are letters from Brigadier General Benjamin McCulloch and his aide, Major John Henry Brown.

100. Brackin Lewis.
Letter, 1884; 1 item.

Letter, post-marked Carter's Store (Washington County), from former Captain Brackin Lewis, Company B, First Arkansas Cavalry (Union), to William W. Dudley, U. S. Commissioner of Pensions, regarding Lewis's claim based on his wartime illnesses.

101. Lighton Family.
Papers, 1828-1977; 20 linear feet.

Letters, photographs, literary manuscripts and other family papers pertaining to the William R. Lighton family of Fayetteville (Washington County). The majority of the documents concern the early twentieth-century activities of the Lighton family, but a few pertain to the Civil War service of Sergeant Andrew Campbell McMaken, Company A, First Nebraska Cavalry. McMaken enlisted as a private but was promoted to sergeant in October 1861. In December 1863, he resigned in order to accept a commission as second lieutenant of Company C, Sixty-second United States Colored Infantry. During his tour of duty with the Sixty-second, McMaken survived the sinking of the steamboat Planet on February 1, 1864, on the Mississippi River near St. James Parish, Louisiana. McMaken resigned his commission on July 4, 1864, and returned to Nebraska. There he reenlisted as a private with the First Regiment of Nebraska Veteran Volunteer Cavalry and saw service at Fort Kearney, Nebraska, as a quartermaster sergeant. Other than his notice of resignation from the Sixty-second U. S. Colored Infantry, no letters of McMaken from 1861 to 1865 are in the collection, but there are numerous supply returns from Fort Kearney dated 1864 and a report of equipment lost during the sinking of the Planet. Some of McMaken's letters from the late nineteenth century mention his war exploits, and there are numerous pension documents. The collection also includes one letter, dated November 11, 1864, written from Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, by Private H. A. Seiffert, Company M, Second Colorado Cavalry. Seiffert, apparently writing to McMaken, describes in detail his experiences during the battle of Westport, Missouri, October 23, 1864, and his regiment's subsequent pursuit of General Sterling Price's retreat toward Arkansas. Finding aid available online.

102. Abraham Lincoln.
Papers, 1833-1916; 97 rolls.

Abraham Lincoln was sixteenth president of the United States. Mainly letters addressed to Lincoln during his presidency, this collection includes some 1,200 items preserved by John G. Nicolay in his capacity as Lincoln's secretary, two drafts of the Gettysburg Address, and a letter of condolence from Queen Victoria to Mary Todd Lincoln. A printed index of correspondence is included. Microfilm copy of original documents held by the Library of Congress.

103. Louisiana State University.
Plantation records, 1779-1919; 527 sheets.

These seventeen collections all pertain to plantation life in Louisiana, Mississippi, and Arkansas, covering such topics as slavery, military affairs, and business operations. Some contain personal narratives. The following is a brief description of the collections: Norbert Badin, business and personal papers of a free black planter of Melrose, Natchitoches Parish, Louisiana, 1829-1900; Mary Bateman, diary of a young girl living with relatives at Argyle Plantation near Greenville, Mississippi, 1856; Priscilla Munnikhuysen Bond, diary, 1858-1865; Louis Amedee Bringier, family papers, 1786-1901; John C. Burruss, family papers, 1825-1882; Eli J. Capell, family papers, 1816-1900; Samuel Adolphus Cartwright, family papers, 1826-1864; Atala Chelette, personal papers of a free black family of Natchitoches Parish, Louisiana, 1819-1900; Miriam Brannin Hilliard, diary, 1849-1850; John Carmichael Jenkins, family papers, 1840-1900; Moses Liddell, family papers, 1813-1919; Eliza L. Magruder, diary, 1846-1857; William J. Minor, family papers, 1779-1898; James Monette, diary, 1848-1863; Slavery Collection, 1804-1860; Leonidas Pendelton Spyker, papers, 1856-1900; Clarissa Leavitt Town, diary, 1853. Microfiche copies of original manuscript collections held by Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge.

104. Robert and Sephronia Clark McCollom.
Papers, 1835-1958; 126 items.

Letters, account statements, photographs, receipts, and other miscellaneous papers pertaining to the Robert McCollom family of Washington County. Robert McCollom was a New Hampshire nurseryman who settled near Fayetteville before the Civil War with his wife, Sephronia, and their three sons, William, Albert, and Ransom. On October 9, 1861, Albert enlisted as a private in Company E, First Arkansas Cavalry. William also enlisted, but probably at a later date, in Company A, Thirty-fourth Arkansas Infantry. The McCollom collection includes twenty-seven letters from Albert, dated from October 31, 1861, to October 2, 1864, from various points in Missouri, Arkansas, and Mississippi. Albert was present at the battle of Pea Ridge (Benton County) in March 1862, but he only refers to the battle in describing the Southern retreat afterwards. The First Arkansas Cavalry saw its next service in Mississippi, and most of Albert's letters from the state describe military activities in the Iuka, Corinth, and Vicksburg areas. Albert was captured at the battle of Corinth, October 3-4, 1862, but was then released on parole. He tried to visit home in December 1862 but got no closer than Yell County, Arkansas, due to Federal activity in the Washington County area. By January 1863, Albert was back with his regiment in Mississippi. He remained in the Vicksburg area until July 1863 when he was again captured with the rest of the city's defenders. The last four letters from Albert were written from Fort Smith (Sebastian County) and Little Rock (Pulaski County) where he was held prisoner by the Union forces. He died in prison at Little Rock on November 26, 1864. In addition to Albert's letters, the McCollom papers include wartime letters from family and friends in Kansas, Illinois, and Indiana.

105. Benjamin McCulloch.
Letter, 1861; 1 item.

Negative photographic print of an original letter written by Brigadier General Benjamin McCulloch from Camp Jackson (Benton County), September 25, 1861, to Arkansas Governor Henry Massey Rector. The letter lists the difficulties encountered by McCulloch in recruiting and arming soldiers to defend the state, mentioning the resistance to his efforts in the various newspapers of the state.

106. McIlroy Family.
Papers, 1846-1968; 2 1/2 linear feet.

Personal and business papers pertaining to three Washington County pioneer merchant families: Powell, Rhea, and McIlroy. Most materials in the collection are from the final decades of the nineteenth century, but with the papers of the Powell and Rhea families is a February 20, 1865, letter written from Dallas, Texas by Joseph D. Powell [Company F, Fourth (Gordon's) Arkansas Cavalry] to his wife Margaret in Washington County. The ledger of William H. Rhea, a miller in the vicinity of Prairie Grove, contains entries made in November and December 1862, which detail the property taken from him by Union troops during the battles of Cane Hill and Prairie Grove. Mentioned in the journal are Colonel William A. Phillips, Third Indian Home Guards, and Lieutenant John W. Rabb, Second Indiana Battery. The McIlroy papers also include financial receipts from the Washington County area dated 1861-1865, and a discharge certificate for Private James T. Williams, Company F, Fifth Indiana Cavalry. Finding aid available online.

107. Isaac C. P. McLendon.
Papers, 1861-1862; 2 items.

Oath of allegiance sworn by Sevier County resident Private Isaac C.P. McLendon, Company E, Third Arkansas Infantry, upon enlistment at Camp Barton, Highland County, Virginia, July 29, 1861. The oath carries an endorsement by Surgeon W. G. Wright. The collection also includes a $260 check drawn on the treasurer of the Confederate States payable to Captain I. C. Hill or "bearer."

108. John S. Marmaduke.
Papers, 1863-1864; 1 roll.

Mainly letters and telegrams received and sent, but including some orders issued, by the headquarters of General John S. Marmaduke. Microfilm copy of original documents held by the National Archives, Record Group 109, Collection of Confederate Records.

109. John S. Marmaduke.
Correspondence with Lucias Marshall Walker, 1863; 8 items.

Correspondence and related material, September 2-5 and October 16, 1863, pertaining to a duel between Confederate generals Marmaduke and Walker. Typescript copy of an original transcript held by the Arkansas History Commission in the Clara Bertha Eno Collection.

110. Elihu G. Martin.
Letter, April 22, 1863; 1 item.

Letter from Private Elihu G. Martin, Company G, Twenty-ninth Iowa Infantry, stationed at Helena (Phillips County), to Thomas S. Beall of Mt. Ayr, Iowa. Martin describes camp conditions, sickness among the troops, payment of the army, and the training of "contrabands" by the Union forces.

111. Martin Family.
Papers, 1847-1945; 1 linear foot.

Diaries, correspondence, legal documents, and photographs created or received by the Benjamin W. Martin family of Warren (Bradley County). Benjamin Martin was a cotton broker doing business in New Orleans as well as Bradley County during the Civil War. Only one letter in this large collection was written during the war, from John Phelps, a business associate in Henderson, Louisiana, to Benjamin, dated December 2, 1863. Phelps discusses local conditions and the lack of news from Arkansas. Finding aid available online.

112. John A. Miller.
Letter, December 3, 1862; 1 item.

Letter from First Sergeant John A. Miller, Company G, Fourth Iowa Infantry, stationed at Helena (Phillips County), to Thomas S. Beall of Mt. Ayr, Iowa. Miller expresses his condolences to Beall over the death of his mother, briefly describes his participation in the White River Expedition, and tells about excitement in camp over an expected attack. Miller also discusses a foray by twenty men from his regiment across the river into Mississippi, and charges to be filed against Second Lieutenant Frederick K. Teal. Miller was killed in action at Vicksburg, Mississippi, on December 29, 1862.

113. Minos Miller.
Papers, 1860-1866; 53 items.

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