Idaho Bibliography Sample

Charles R. Peterson, Jonathan M. Beck

John Cossel Jr. and C. R. Peterson

Oct. 11, 1998

Bakewell, G., J.M. Chopek, and G.L. Burkholder. 1983. Notes on reproduction of the side-blotched lizard Uta stansburiana stansburiana in southwest Idaho. Great Basin Natur. 43:477-482.

Bales, P.F. and M.B. Stickney. 1986. The preliminary report of the 1987 high lake fisheries project. Moose Creek Ranger District. 176 pp. plus maps and appendices.

Bales, P.F. and M.B. Stickney. 1987. The preliminary report of the 1987 high lake fisheries project. Moose Creek Ranger District. 192 pp. plus maps and appendices.

Bartelt, P. 1997. Idaho Native Species Account: Western Toad. Idaho Herp News. 9(6):8-9.

Bartelt, P. 1998. Bufo boreas. Mortality. Natural History Note. 29(2):96.

Bartelt, P.E. and C.R. Peterson. 1994. Riparian habitat utilization by Western Toads (Bufo boreas) and Spotted Frogs (Rana pretiosa) Final Report to the USDA Forest Service Intermountain Research Station, Boise, ID. 30 pp., 4 tables, and 19 figures.

Beck, J.R., J. Janovetz, and C.R. Peterson. 1997. Amphibians of the Coeur d'Alene Basin: A Survey of Bureau of Land
Management Lands. Final Report to the Bureau of Land Management.

Beneski, J. T., E. D. Zalisko, and J. H. Larsen, Jr. 1986. Demography and migratory patterns of the eastern long-toed salamander, Ambystoma macrodactylum columbianum. Copeia, 1986(2):398-408.

Bishop, S.C. 1962. Handbook of Salamanders: The Salamanders of the Unites States, of Canada, and of Lower Caliornia. New York: Hafner Publishing Co., Inc. pp.12-16.

Brothers, D.R.  1994.  Bufo boreas (western toad).  Predation.  Herp. Rev.  24:57.

Burkholder, G.L., and J.M. Walker. 1973. Habitat and reproduction of the desert whiptail lizard Cnemidophorus tigris Baird and Girard in southwestern Idaho at the northern part of its range. Herpetologica 29:76-83.

Burton, S.R. 1997. Idaho Native Species Account: Boreal Chorus Frog. Idaho Herp News. 9(5):7-8.

Burton, S.R., B. Blackwelder, and C.R. Peterson. 1997. Amphibian and Reptile Inventory along Highway 89 in Montpelier
Canyon, Caribou National Forest, Idaho. Final Report to Caribou National Forest.

Cassirer, E.F., C.R. Groves, and D. Genter. 1993. Senstive species management guide for the Coeur d’Alene salamander. Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, and Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena. 38 pp.

Chantell, C.J. 1970. Upper Pliocene frogs from Idaho. Copeia 1970:654-664.

Clark, R.J. and C.R. Peterson. 1994. Yearly variation in amphibian sampling on the Targhee National Forest. Final Report to the Targhee National Forest.

Clark, C.R. and C.R. Peterson. 1997. Distribution, Relative Abundance, and Habitat Relationships of Amphibians in the
Mink Creek Drainage of Caribou National Forest. Final Report to Caribou National Forest.

Clark, R.J. and C.R. Peterson. 1998. Preliminary Survey of the Amphibians of the Blackfoot River Wildlife Management
Area: Distribution, Relative Abundance, and Habitat Associations. Final Report to the Idaho Department of Fish and Game.

Clark, R.J., C.R. Peterson, and P.E. Bartelt. 1993. The distribution, relative abundance, and habitat associations of amphibians on the Targhee National Forest. Final Report to the Targhee National Forest.

Conservation Data Center. 1994. Rare, threatened, and endangered plants and animals of Idaho. Third edition. Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, Idaho. 39p.

Cope, E.D. 1879. A contribution to the zoology of Montana. American Naturalist. 13(7):432-441.

Cooper, S.L. 1997. Idaho Native Species Account: Great Basin Spadefoot. Idaho Herp News. 9(4):7-9.

Cooper, S.L. and C. R. Peterson. 1997. Monitoring Amphibian and Reptile Populations on the Idaho National Engineering
and Environmental Laboratory: Indicators of Environmental Health and Change. Pp. 107-111.

Diller, L.V. 1981. Comperative ecology of Great Basin rattlesnakes (Crotalus viridis lutosus) and Great Basin gopher snakes (Pituophis melanoleucus deserticola) and their impact on small mammal populations in the Snake River Birds of Prey Natural Area. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Idaho, Moscow, i-x+89 pp.

Diller, L.V. and D.R. Johnson. 1982. Ecology of reptiles in the Snake River Birds of Prey Area. BLM Snake River Birds of Prey Research Project, Boise. 107 pp.

Diller, L.V. and D.R. Johnson. 1988. Food habits, consumption rates, and predation rates of western rattlesnakes and gopher snakes in southwestern Idaho. Herpetologica 44:228-233.

Diller, L.V. and R.L. Wallace. 1981. Additional distributional records and abundance of three species of snakes in southwestern Idaho. Great Basin Naturalist. 41:154-157.

Diller, L.V. and R.L. Wallace. 1984. Reproductive biology of the northern Pacific rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis oreganus) in northern Idaho. Herpetologica 40:182-193.

Diller, L.V. and R.L. Wallace. 1986. Aspects of the life history and ecology of the desert night snake, Hypsiglena torquata deserticola: Colubridae, in southwestern Idaho. Southwest. Natur. 31:55-64.

Dorcas, M.E. and C.R. Peterson. 1997. Head-body temperature differences in free-ranging rubber boas. J. Herp. 31(1):

Dorcas, M.E. and C.R. Peterson. 1998. Daily body temperature variation in free-ranging rubber boas.

Dorcas, M.E., C.R. Peterson, and M.T. Flint.  1997.  The thermal biology of digestion in rubber boas (Charina bottae): physiology, behavior, and environmental constraints.  Physiological Zoology 70(3):292-300.

Dumas, P.C. 1947. Introductory survey of the amphibians and reptiles of Idaho. Processed by University of Idaho, pp. 1-15.

Dumas, P.C. 1957. Rana sylvatica LeConte in Idaho. Copeia 1957(2):150-151.

Dumas, P.C. 1964. Species-pair allopatry in the genera Rana and Phrynosoma. Ecology 45:178-181.

Dumas, P.C. 1966. Studies of the Rana species complex in the Pacific Northwest. Copeia 1966:60-74.

Erwin, R.P. 1925. Snakes in Idaho. Copeia 138:6-7.

Erwin, R.P. 1928. List of reptiles and amphibians in the Idaho state historical museum. 11th Biennial Report of the State Historical Society of Idaho. pp. 31-33.

Fichter, E. and A. Linder. 1964. The amphibians of Idaho. Idaho State Mus. Special Pub., 34 p.

Good, D.A. 1989. Hybridization and cryptic species in Dicamptodon Caudata Dicamptodontidae. Evolution 43 (4). 1989. 728-744.

Green, D.M.,  T.F. Sharbel, J. Kearsley, and H. Kaiser.  1996.  Postglacial Range Fluctuation, Genetic Subdivision and Speciation in the Western North American Spotted Frog Complex, Rana pretiosa.    Evolution, 50(1): 374-390.

Green, D.M., H. Kaiser, T.F. Sharbel, J. Kearsley, and K.R. McAllister.  1997.  Cryptic Species of Spotted Frogs, Rana pretiosa Complex, in Western North America.   Copeia, 1997(1):1-8.

Grothe, S. 1990-93. Redtail Hawk predation on snakes: the effects of weather and snake activity. Snake River Birds of Prey Area Annual Reports. Bureau of Land Management, Boise, ID. 5, 9, and 2 pp., respectively.

Groves, C.R. 1989. Idaho’s amphibians and reptiles: description, habitat, and ecology. Nongame Wildlife Leaflet No. 7, Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise. 12 pp.

Groves, C.R. 1994 Idaho’s amphibians and reptiles: description, habitat, and ecology. Nongame Wildlife Leaflet No. 7, Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise. 12 pp.

Groves, C.R. and C.R. Peterson. 1992. Population trends of Idaho amphibians as determined by mail questionnaire. Final Report to Idaho Department of Fish and Game. 16 pp.

Guyer, C. 1978. Comparative ecology of the short-horned lizard (Phrynosoma douglassi) and the sagebrush lizard (Sceloporous graciosus). Unpublished thesis, Idaho State University. 130 pp.

Guyer, C. and A.D. Linder. 1985. Thermal ecology and activity pattern of the short-horned lizard (Phrynosoma douglassii) and the sagebrush lizard (Sceloporus graciousus) in southeastern Idaho. Great Basin Natur. 45:607-614.

Hamilton, G.B., C.R. Peterson, W.A. Wall. 1998. Distribution and Habitat Relationships of Amphibians on the Potlatch
Corporation Operating Area in Northern Idaho. Final Report (1994 - 1996) to Potlatch Corp.

Howard, J.H. and R.L. Wallace. 1985. Life history characteristics of populations of the long-toed salamander (Ambystoma macrodactylum) from different altitudes. Amer. Midl. Nat. 113:361-373.

Kirk, J.J. 1988. Western spotted frog (Rana pretiosa) mortality following forest spraying of DDT. Herp Review 19:51-53. [describes the death of spotted frogs following application of DDT near a pond in Umitilla, Oregon for control of the Douglas fir tussock moth; analyses of the dead frogs indicated much higher levels of DDT than in a sample of live frogs from the same site; the spraying was conducted over 173,000 ha of forest in Oregon, Washington, and Idaho]

Lee, J.R. S. Cooper Doering, and C.R. Peterson. 1998. Monitoring Amphibian and Reptile Populations on the Idaho National
Engineering and Environmental Laboratory: Indicators of Environmental Health and Change. Pp. 52-56.

Linder, A.D. and E. Fichter. 1977. The amphibians and reptiles of Idaho. Idaho State University Press, Pocatello, ID. 78 pp.

Linder, A.D. and R.W. Sehman. 1977. Herpetofauna of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Site. J. Idaho Acad. Sci. 13:42-46.

Linderman, P.V. 1988. Comparative life history of the painted turtle, Chrysemys picta, in the inland Pacific Northwest. M.S. Thesis. Univ. Idaho, Moscow. 102 pp.

Llewellyn, R.L. 1997. Spea intermontana. Geographic Distribution. Herp. Rev. 28(2):94.

Llewellyn, R.L. 1997. Hypsiglena torquata deserticola. Geographic Distribution. Herp. Rev. 29(1):53.

Llewellyn, R. and C.R. Peterson. 1997. Distribution, Relative Abundance, and Habitat Associations of Amphibians and
Reptiles on the Craig Mountain Wildlife Mitigation Area. Final Report to Bureau of Land Management, Idaho Department of
Fish and Game, National Fish and Wildlife Foundation, and Potlatch Corporation.

Metter, D.E. 1968. The influence of floods on population structure of Ascaphus truei. Journal of Herpetology 1:105-106. [Idaho, Oregon]

Moseley, R.M. and C.R. Groves. 1992. Rare, threatened, and endangered plants and animals of Idaho. Conservation Data Center, Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise. 38 pp.

Munger, J.C., S.L. Small, M. Olson, P. Bartelt, and C.R. Peterson. 1993. A preliminary survey of the herpetofauna of Bruneau Resource Area, Boise District. Final report to the Bureau of Land Management, Idaho State Office, Boise, Idaho. 34 pp plus tables and maps.

Munger,J.C., L. Heberger, D. Logan, W. Peterson, L. Mealy, M. Caughlin. 1994. A survey of the herpetofauna of Bruneau Resource Area, Boise District, with focus on the spotted frog, Rana pretiosa. Idaho Bureau of Land Management Technical Bulletin No. 94-7 July 1994 6 pp. 1 figure, 4 tables, maps, and appendices.

Parker, W.S. and E.R. Pianka. 1976. Ecological observations on the leopard lizard (Crotaphytus wislizeni) in different parts of its range. Herpetologica 32:95-114.

Patla, D.A. 1997. Idaho Native Species Account: Columbia Spotted Frog. Idaho Herp News. 9(3):7-9.

Pendlebury, G. B. 1976. Second occurrence of the longnose snake, Rhinocheilus lecontei lecontei, in Idaho. Great Basin Naturalist. 36(1):56.

Peterson, C.R.  1997.  Checklist for amphibian survey reports.  Pp. 113-122 In: Sampling Amphibians in Lentic Habitats.  D.H. Olson, W.P. Leonard, and R.B. Bury (editors).  Northwest Fauna 4.

Pilliod, D.S. and C.R. Peterson. 1997. Alpine Ecology: Effects of Fish Stocking on Amphibian Populations, Bighorn Crags,
Frank Church-River of No Return Wilderness, Idaho. 1995 Progress to Aldo Leopold Wilderness Research Institute, USDA
Forest Service.

Raslton, G. L., and W. H. Clark. 1978. Additional records of the western ground snake Sonora semiannulata, for Idaho. Journal of the Idaho Academy of Science 14(2):35-39.

Reynolds, T.D. 1978. The response of native vertebrate populations to different land management practices on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Site. Unpublished dissertation, Idaho State University. 105 pp.

Reynolds, Timothy D. 1979. Response of reptile populations to different land management practices on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Site. Great Basin Naturalist. 39(3):255-262.

Schaub,D.L and J.H. Larsen. 1978. The reproductive ecology of the Pacific treefrog (Hyla regilla). Herpetologica 34(4): 409-416.

Slater, J.R. 1937. Notes on the tiger salamander, Ambystoma tigrinum, in Washington and Idaho. Herpetologica. 1(3)81-83.

Slater, J.R., and J.W. Slip. 1940. A new species of Plethodon from northern Idaho. Occasional Papers Department of Zoology College of Puget Sound. No. 8, pp. 38-43, figs. I-3.

Slater, J.R. 1940. The pacific giant salamander in Idaho. Occasional Papers Department of Zoology College of Puget Sound. no. II, p.69.

Slater, J.R. 1941. The distribution of amphibians and reptiles in Idaho. Occas. Papers Dept. Biol. College Puget Sound (14): 78-109.

Smith, H.M. 1946. Handbook of Lizards Lizards of the United States and Canada. Ithica, New York: Comstock Publishing Company.

Stebbins, R. C. A field guide to Western reptiles and amphibians. 1985. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company.

Stejneger, L. 1890. Annotated list of reptiles and batrachians collected by Dr. C. Hart Merriam and party in Idaho, 1891. North American Fauna. no. 5, pp. 109-117.

Stickel, W. H. 1938. The snakes in the genus Sonora in the Unites States and lower California. Copea 4:182-190.

Tanner, W.W. 1941. The reptiles and amphibians of Idaho. The Great Basin Naturalist 2(2):87-97.

Tanner, W.W. 1978. Zoogeography of reptiles and amphibians in the Intermontane region. Great Basin Naturalist, Memoirs 2:43-53. [check this out to see if it includes information for Idaho]

Van Denburgh, J. 1897. The reptiles of the Pacific Coast and Great Basin: an account of the species known to inhabit Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and Nevada. Occasional Paper of the California Academy of Science. 5:1-236.

Van Denburgh, J. 1912. Notes on some reptiles and amphibians from Oregon, Idaho, and Utah. Proceedings ot the California Academy of Science (Fourth Series) 3:155-160.

Van Denburgh, J., and J.R. Slevin. 1921. List of the amphibians and reptiles of Idaho, with notes on the species in the collection of the Academy. Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., 4th series 11(3):39-47.

Van Denburgh, J. 1922. The reptiles of western North America - an account of the species known to inhabit California and Oregon, Washington, Idaho, Utah, Nevada, Arizona, British Columbia, Sonora and Lower California. Vol. 1 - Lizards and Vol. 2 - Snakes and Turtles. Occasional paper of the California Academy of Science. 10, 1028 pp.

Waitz, J. Allan. 1961. Parasitic helminths as aids in studying the distribution of species of Rana in Idaho. Trans. Illinois State Acad. Sci. 54(3,4):152-156.

Wallace, R.L. 1986. A Biochemical genetic study of the Plethodon vandykei complex. Final report, Idaho fish and Game Non-Game Program Boise, Idaho. 30pp.

Wilson, A.G. Jr. 1990. A survey of the Nez Perce National Forest for the Coeur d'Alene salamander (Plethodon idahoensis). Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Nongame and Endangered Wildlife Program. 33 pp.

Wilson, A.G. Jr. 1991. A survey of the Avery Ranger District, Panhandle National Forest,for the Coeur d'Alene salamander (Plethodon idahoensis). Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Nongame and Endangered Wildlife Program. 44 pp.

Wilson, A.G. Jr. 1993. Biogeographic and morphometric analyses of the Plethodon vandykei species group. Ph.D. Dissertation. Washington State University, Pullman. 127 pp.

Wilson, A.G. Jr., and J.H. Larsen, Jr.. 1988. Activity and diet in seepage-dwelling Coeur d'Alene salamander (Plethodon vandykei idahoensis). Northwest Science 62:211-217.

Wilson, A. G. Jr., and E. M. Simon. 1987. Status of the Coeur d'Alene salamander (Plethodon vandykei idahoensis) in Montana. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena, MT. 134 pp.

Wilson, A. G. Jr., E. M. Simon, and J. H. Larsen, Jr. 1989. Range extension for the Coeur d'Alene salamander, Plethodon vandykei idahoensis, to the Canada-United States border. Canadian Field Naturalist 103:93-94.

Yeo, J.J. and C.R. Peterson. 1998. Amphibian and Reptile Distribution and Habitat Relationships in the Lost River
Mountains and Challis-Lemhi resource Areas. Idaho Bureau of Land Management Technical Bulletin No. 98-10.


by Cheryl Hoover


Advocacy is often confused with marketing and public relations.  While it is related to both of those concepts, advocacy is the art of using marketing and public relations techniques to defend or promote a cause. Library advocacy is the process of educating and influencing decision makers to enlist their active support for libraries of all types.  Library areas requiring advocacy campaigns include public opinion, financial support, and legislative impact.  People who champion the cause of libraries come from different backgrounds and advocate on the local, state, regional and national levels to increase public awareness of the value of libraries.  Advocate groups can be individuals or part of a formalized group: they are the child down the street, a bookmobile user, the new library staff person, a member of the library’s board of trustees, or the president of the Friends of the Library.  Improving the public’s perception of libraries leads to more powerful advocacy through amplified library use and increased demand of library services.

Passive community support for libraries is not enough to help libraries improve their lot in society.  Libraries compete for tax monies, grants, donations, and funding from other sources. The library benefits when passive supporters become more knowledgeable, vocal, and proactive about supporting their local library institution.  Proactive, effective advocates are vital to libraries of all types; the need to develop successful advocacy campaigns is critical to organizations spiraling towards funding crisis problems.  While data indicates that overall library usage is strong, active advocacy by stakeholders has more untapped potential.

This annotated bibliography provides resources related to the historical development of library advocate groups and also provides resources to help develop an advocacy campaign, ranging from a small-grassroots effort on the frontlines in the library trenches to the formation of formal, structured groups whose mission is to advocate on behalf of the library. The resources are divided into three sections. The first section provides a touch of historical context in regards to two powerful advocacy groups. The second section is the largest and focuses on how to cultivate advocates and offers tips on creating appropriate messages. The final section offers a resource that plays the role of devil’s advocate; friends advocate groups can be helpful but they can also create problems for library staff and administration.  Are they an asset or liability?

Historical Context

Reed, S.G. (2009). Amalgamating for advocacy: Two venerable groups combine their expertise to advance the cause of libraries. American Libraries, 40(3), 34-36.

Author Sally Gardner Reed provides brief historical information on the formation of the Trustee Section of the American Library Association (ALA) in 1890 and how it evolved into the Association of Library Trustees and Advocates (ALTA).  Reed also discusses the formation of another library advocacy group:  The Friends of Library. This non-profit organization supported local libraries primarily through fundraising and advocacy efforts. This organization was formalized in 1979 to become the Friends of Libraries, U.S.A. (FOLUSA). Like their Trustee counterparts, members of FOLUSA advocate for libraries to members of the legislature and annually honor a member of Congress who has demonstrated significant support for libraries.

This historical background adds context to the recent formation of the Association for Library Trustees, Advocates, Friends and Foundations (ALTAFF) by ALA, which is a combination of the two groups. The power of these two groups was magnified when they joined forces. Their combined advocacy has done much through the years to garner citizen support for libraries, which translates into positive outcomes, politically and financially, for libraries.  Reed proceeds to give specific examples from around the country of how these groups have collaborated to develop campaigns to support and improve library service within their communities.

This article was selected because of its brief overview of the formation of the two advocate groups and for the sample success stories of how formal advocate groups can create positive change for libraries.

How To Advocate

Dimattia, S. (2011). Advocacy and image: Partners in creating a value proposition. Information Outlook, 15(2), 14-16.

A successful advocacy campaign begins with the foundation of a strong image of the organization.  This image, or how others perceive you, must inspire assurance that you deserve their support.  Part of cultivating this image in the library setting requires information professionals to communicate a strong image of what they do for their clientele. If library users or the greater community do not understand the library profession or how it creates value in the community, these people cannot be expected to advocate on the library’s behalf.

Dimattia describes the basic steps to creating an advocacy campaign. The first step involves the creation and verbalization of the overall vision and five issues to use to create messages for potential advocates. The second step is to prioritize issues in order of importance. Step three identifies target audiences for the specific issues and develops a statement of why this issue is important to the target audience.  The next step requires determining the talking points of the main message and to test the message with a sample group. The final step is to select and train advocates to deliver this message to the target audience. Effective communicators are passionate and well-prepared. The understand how to use tools of communication to draw listeners in and convey their message.

This article was chosen because of its discussion on creating an appropriate image for the profession and included details for how to develop an advocacy campaign. The image of today’s library is unclear in the minds of some decision makers and it is important for the library to make sure they convey the right message.

Gerding, S. (2007). Advocate for more: Focus on legislative funding. Public Libraries, 46(2), 36-39.

Alternative funding sources are important to generating income for libraries; however, the normal revenue streams must be protected and should be a priority for library advocacy groups.  For example, libraries receive funds from local tax dollars and also from agencies on the state and federal levels.  Advocating to these constituents is necessary to maintain funds from these sources.

Gerding explains that the first step is finding the right people to advocate for the library. The reason is that the person who delivers the message is often more important than the actual message. Putting the right person in the role of delivering the message can improve the odds of the message being positively received.  The right person to be the advocate varies according to the type of message that is to be delivered.   The next step is determining which audience to target first and then develop the advocate group from within their peers. An important consideration is to build connections in the community before they are needed.

Another important aspect of library advocacy is the ability to organize people to a course of action or for a particular cause. Decisions need to be made regarding who the target audience would consider important people. Then those important people should be cultivated as advocates. Advocating to elected officials can improve funding situations.  Gerding provides advice on how to utilize in-person meetings, telephone calls, letters, email, and editorials to get the message across.

This article provided specific details for how to communicate with elected officials, which was useful for this annotated bibliography. While many of the suggestions were common-sense, they still serve as a reminder for those composing or initiating correspondence.

Lowman, S. S., & Bixby, M.D. (2011). Working with friends groups: Enhancing participation through cultivation and planning. Journal of Library Administration, 51(2), 209-220. doi: 10.1080/01930826.2011.540551

As library budget woes continue unilaterally, improving public awareness of library services to the community increases in importance.  Lowman and Bixby examine and discuss the very successful Friends of the Library activities at Fondren Library that build library loyalty in the donor community and encourage active participation.

Fondren Library at Rice University fosters growth in library resources by encouraging participation through their Friends group. The Friends of the Library’s mission is to increase community and alumni interest and support the University by helping to fund library initiatives and goals.  This active group sponsors various community programs, including lectures, books sales, and author receptions; assist with publicizing library resources and services; sponsor gifts and memorials and purchase materials and equipment. The use of free public events as outreach is particularly successful for the Friends. They sponsor an annual gala which has raised a minimum of $100,000 each year. The money has been used to establish two endowments for the library. Lowman and Bixby attribute the success of the Friends to quality leadership and a successful director who is diplomatic, organized and knowledgeable with event planning, and able to work successfully with a wide range of volunteers.

This article was included in the bibliography because it provides an excellent example of just how successful and productive a Friends group can be and offers fundraising ideas that could be used by other institutions.

Pecoraro, J. (2009). What’s it worth? The value of library services as an advocacy tool. Texas Library Journal, 85(1), 8-9.  Retrieved from

Libraries must be able to tell their story accurately and effectively to library stakeholders in order to raise public awareness of the value of their services. Determining the value of specific library services and then communicating that value to the public is a challenge.  Pecoraro, Coordinator of the Big Country Library System, shares his experience in gathering and preparing such information and making it meaningful and relevant to library users.

Libraries need to determine which services they would like to highlight and then decide on the appropriate value of that service. The information can be entered into a spreadsheet template but statistics need to be available.  The goal is to have the total value of the library’s services exceed the actual amount of the library’s budget.  This demonstrates a positive return on investment. This information can then be used to advocate to library constituents.

Pecoraro also provides links to personal value calculators used by other libraries. Patrons enter information on how they use the library and a value is generated demonstrating the monetary value of the library to the patron. For example, how many books or videos were borrowed and how many programs were attended?  These tools can be placed on library home pages and used to improve public awareness and increase support of the library.

This article was included because it provides links to calculators that can easily be added to a library’s home page. It also offered concrete ideas on how to determine the value of the library’s services and how to further communicate that information to the library stakeholders.

Price, L. (2010). Bringing in the money: Elevator speeches for libraries. Public Libraries, 49(5), 24 – 27.

Opportunities to advocate on behalf of a library can occur suddenly, without warning, and in some pretty unusual places.  To be ready for these types of situations, Price recommends library advocates have a short speech ready to sell or promote an idea that would benefit a library or organization. However, there are right and wrong ways to go about presenting this speech. It needs to be brief enough so that it can be stated during a short elevator ride — hence the name “elevator speech.”  The speech should be modified and adjustable based on the intended recipient and finished with a request for action.  The speech and request for action should be performed in about 90 seconds to two minutes time. To further illustrate his point, Price provides fictitious elevator speeches written by professionals at various institutions.

Lastly, the author offers final pointers for preparing successful elevator speeches.  Remember key points and avoid memorizing, remain flexible and adaptable to the nonverbal responses of the listener, and work on developing several elevator speeches in order to be ready for different situations.  Any library stakeholder can utilize an elevator speech so it is important to teach this skill to others.

This article was chosen because it was a simple act that could be done by many library advocates  who find themselves in the right situation with the right person.

Wong, P., & Todaro, J. (2010). Frontline advocacy is everybody’s job. American Libraries, 41(6/7), 82-84.

Wong and Todaro discuss the importance of frontline advocacy to libraries of all types. This idea is so important that the American Library Association’s (ALA) President Camila Alire made frontline advocacy a presidential initiative. She encourages libraries to commit to this type of advocacy to improve public awareness of library services during tough economic times. Frontline advocacy is the action of staff who work at service points within the library to engage and promote the library during work time and beyond. This connection with library patrons and citizens in the community is an important part of library advocacy and helps spread a positive message about the value of libraries.

Libraries do not need to reinvent the wheel when it comes to creating a frontline advocacy program; there are tools available at the ALA website to help get them started. Using these tools can improve the success of frontline advocacy and help make it part of the organization’s culture.  This ALA toolkit is available online in the Advocacy University section. The toolkit can be used in its entirety or as separate, individual items. Training materials in this toolkit include videos, PowerPoint presentations, tutorials, and a webinar. An initiative document, 52 Ways to Make a Difference: Advocacy Throughout the Year, provides a list of themes that can be used on a weekly basis to help support the library’s frontline advocacy campaign.

Creating formal advocacy campaigns can be daunting to library staff; therefore, this article was selected because it discuss the importance of a grassroots campaign that begins with library staff.  The Toolkit mentioned provides a good starting point for libraries who want to begin a frontline advocacy program.

Problems with Advocacy Groups

D’Andraia, F., Fitzpatrick, J., & Oliver, C. (2011). Academic libraries and friends groups: Asset or liability? Journal of Library Administration, 51, 221-230. doi: 10.1080/01930826.2011.540553

D’Andraia, Fitzpatrick and Oliver examine the early years of friends groups in academic libraries but state there is very little useful information regarding the history or chronology from a theoretical standpoint. Most of the historical information available on friends groups relates more to the practical aspects like how to do fundraising. The first academic friends group was founded at Harvard University in 1925 and the trend quickly grew.  Despite the growth of these groups, the authors argue that are inherent problems that can occur whenever a friends group is formed and that they are not always beneficial to a library.

While many friends groups function without problems, the authors examine literature that discusses various issues common to some friends groups. Members can become lethargic and may require excessive assistance from library staff to do their jobs. Friends may have difficulty understanding their specific role in the organization and the differences between a friend and a trustee.  Current opinion believes that the primary role of a friends group is to assist with the fundraising needs of the library or to support special events. However, finding the right mix of people who are willing and able to work hard to advocate on behalf of the library without creating undue stress on staff and other library constituents is a challenge.

This article was selected because it offers an alternative perspective of friends groups; whereas, the majority of other articles focused on the positive benefits. D’Andraia, et al, describe potential problems of these advocacy groups that are believable and realistic. While this article focused on academic library friends groups, the information easily transcends into friends groups for libraries of all types.


The review of literature included in this annotated bibliography indicates an overwhelming agreement among library professionals that libraries benefit from advocacy efforts. Positive results occur whether advocacy is done on a small scale or through large, organized efforts with formal groups. Important steps for formulating an advocacy campaign include determining the mission, creating the message, and finding and cultivating the right messengers. Despite a library’s best intentions, problems may arise and personality issues within the advocate groups will need managing. Library staff and administrators should use the available resources and tools to guide them in any level of advocacy effort they would like to undertake.

Cheryl Hoover is a MSLS candidate at the University of North Texas. She works at the Montana State University –Billings Library.

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