Research Papers About Drugs In Professional Sports

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2. Catlin DH, Murray TH. Performance-enhancing drugs, fair competition, and Olympic sport. JAMA. 1996;276:231–237.[PubMed]

3. Fernandez MM, Hosey RG. Performance-enhancing drugs snare nonathletes, too. J Fam Pract. 2009;58:16–23.[PubMed]

4. Metzl JD, Small E, Levine SR, Gershel JC. Creatine use among young athletes. Pediatrics. 2001;108:421–425.[PubMed]

5. Uvacsek M, Nepusz T, Naughton DP, Mazanov J, Ranky MZ, Petroczi A. Self-admitted behavior and perceived use of performance-enhancing vs psychoactive drugs among competitive athletes. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2011;21:224–234.[PubMed]

6. National Institute on Drug Abuse, US Department of Health and Human Services Monitoring the future national survey on drug use, 1975–2003, volume II. College students and adults ages 19–25. [Accessed June 12, 2014]. Available from: http://www.monitoringthefuture.org/pubs/monographs/vol2_2003.pdf.

7. Green GA, Uryasz FD, Petr TA, et al. NCAA study of substance abuse habits of college student-athletes. Clin J Sports Med. 2001;11:51–56.[PubMed]

8. Kersey RD, Elliot DL, Goldberg L, et al. National Athletic Trainers’ Association position statement: anabolic-androgenic steroids. J Athl Train. 2012;47:567–588.[PMC free article][PubMed]

9. Cottler LB, Abdallah AB, Cummings SM, Barr J, Banks R, Forchheimer R. Injury, pain, and prescription opioid use among former National Football League (NFL) players. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2011;116:188–194.[PMC free article][PubMed]

10. McDuff DR, Baron D. Substance use in athletics: a sports psychiatry perspective. Clin Sports Med. 2005;24:885–897.[PubMed]

11. Wanjek B, Rosendahl J, Strauss B, Gabriel HH. Doping, drugs and drug abuse among adolescents in the State of Thuringia (Germany): prevalence, knowledge and attitudes. Int J Sports Med. 2007;28:346–353.[PubMed]

12. Botre F, Pavan A. Enhancement drugs and the athlete. Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am. 2009;20:133–148.[PubMed]

13. Morse ED. Substance use in athletes. In: Baron DA, Reardon CL, Baron SH, editors. Clinical Sports Psychiatry: An International Perspective. Oxford, UK: Wiley; 2013.

14. Reardon CL, Factor RM. A systematic review of diagnosis and medical treatment of mental illness in athletes. Sports Med. 2010;40:961–980.[PubMed]

15. Riggs P, Levin F, Green AI, et al. Comorbid psychiatric and substance abuse disorders: recent treatment research. Subst Abuse. 2008;29:51–63.[PubMed]

16. Baron DA, Reardon CL, Baron SH. Doping in sport. In: Baron DA, Reardon CL, Baron SH, editors. Clinical Sports Psychiatry: An International Perspective. Oxford, UK: Wiley; 2013.

17. Yesalis CE. History of doping in sport. In: Bahrke MS, Yesalis CE, editors. Performance Enhancing Substances in Sport and Exercise. Champaign, IL, USA: Human Kinetics; 2002.

18. Landry GL, Kokotailo PK. Drug screening in athletic settings. Curr Problems Pediatr. 2004;24:344–359.[PubMed]

19. Franke WW, Berendonk B. Hormonal doping and androgenization of athletes: a secret program of the German Democratic Republic. Clin Chem. 1997;43:1262–1279.[PubMed]

20. McGann B, McGann C. The Story of the Tour de France. Indianapolis, IN, USA: Dog Ear Publishing; 2006.

21. Teale P, Scarth J, Judson S. Impact of the emergence of designer drugs upon sports doping testing. Bioanalysis. 2012;4:71–88.[PubMed]

22. International Association of Athletics Federations IAAF commitment to healthy and drug free athletic. 2013. [Accessed August 29, 2013]. Available from: http://www.iaaf.org/about-iaaf/medical-anti-doping.

23. Federation Internationale de Football Association A brief history of doping. 2013. [Accessed August 29, 2013]. Available from: http://www.fifa.com/aboutfifa/footballdevelopment/medical/news/newsid=514062/index.html.

24. International Olympic Committee Factsheet: the fight against doping and promotion of athletes’ health. 2013. [Accessed August 29, 2013]. Available from: http://www.olympic.org/Documents/Reference_documents_Factsheets/Fight_against_doping.pdf.

25. World Anti-Doping Agency A brief history of anti-doping. 2010. [Accessed August 29, 2013]. Available from: http://www.wada-ama.org/en/about-wada/history/

26. Voet W. Breaking the Chain. London, UK: Random House; 1999.

27. Bhasin S, Storer TW, Berman N, et al. The effects of supraphysiologic doses of testosterone on muscle size and strength in normal men. N Engl J Med. 1996;335:1–7.[PubMed]

28. Bhasin S, Woodhouse L, Casaburi R, et al. Testosterone dose-response relationships in healthy young men. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2001;281:E1172–E1181.[PubMed]

29. Storer TW, Magliano L, Woodhouse L, et al. Testosterone dose-dependently increases maximal voluntary strength and leg power, but does not affect fatigability or specific tension. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003;88:1478–1485.[PubMed]

30. Wallace MB, Lim J, Cutler A, Bucci L. Effects of dehydroepiandrosterone vs androstenedione supplementation in men. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1999;31:1788–1792.[PubMed]

31. Morales AJ, Haubrich RH, Hwang JY, Asakura H, Yen SS. The effect of six months treatment with a 100 mg daily dose of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on circulating sex steroids, body composition and muscle strength in age-advanced men and women. Clin Endocrinol. 1998;49:421–432.[PubMed]

32. Kohler M, Thomas A, Geyer H, Petrou M, Schanzer W, Thevis M. Confiscated black market products and nutritional supplements with non-approved ingredients analyzed in the Cologne Doping Control Laboratory 2009. Drug Test Anal. 2010;2:533–537.[PubMed]

33. Handelsman DJ. Clinical review: the rationale for banning human chorionic gonadotropin and estrogen blockers in sport. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006;91:1646–1653.[PubMed]

34. Handelsman DJ. Indirect androgen doping by oestrogen blockage in sports. Br J Pharmacol. 2008;154:598–605.[PMC free article][PubMed]

35. Basaria S. Androgen abuse in athletes: detection and consequences. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010;95:1533–1543.[PubMed]

36. Meinhardt U, Nelson AE, Hansen JL, et al. The effects of growth hormone on body composition and physical performance in recreational athletes: a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med. 2010;152:568–577.[PubMed]

37. Holt RI, Sonksen PH. Growth hormone, IGF-I and insulin and their abuse in sport. Br J Pharmacol. 2008;154:542–556.[PMC free article][PubMed]

38. Eichner ER. Stimulants in sports. Curr Sports Med Rep. 2008;7:244–245.[PubMed]

39. Higgins P, Tuttle TD, Higgins CL. Energy beverages: content and safety. Mayo Clin Proc. 2010;85:1033–1041.[PMC free article][PubMed]

40. National College Athletic Association NCAA guidelines to document ADHD treatment with banned stimulant medications. Addendum to the Jan 2009 guideline. 2010. [Accessed June 12, 2014]. Available from: http://www.lagrange.edu/resources/pdf/athletics/athletictraining/FAQ.pdf.

41. Shaikin B. Los Angeles Times. Baseball’s 2008 drug test results released in report. Jan 10, 2009. [Accessed September 17, 2010]. Available from: http://articles.latimes.com/2009/jan/10/sports/sp-newswire10.

42. Judkins C, Prock P. Supplements and inadvertent doping – how big is the risk to athletes. Med Sports Sci. 2012;59:143–152.[PubMed]

43. Kendall KL, Smith AE, Graef JL, et al. Effects of four weeks of high-intensity interval training and creatine supplementation on critical power and anaerobic working capacity in college-aged men. J Strength Cond Res. 2009;23:1663–1669.[PubMed]

44. Branch JD. Effect of creatine supplementation on body composition and performance: a meta-analysis. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2003;13:198–226.[PubMed]

45. Elliott S. Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents and other methods to enhance oxygen transport. Br J Pharmacol. 2008;154:529–541.[PMC free article][PubMed]

46. Bailey JA, Averbuch RN, Gold MS. Cosmetic psychiatry: from Viagra to MPH. Directions in Psychiatry. 2009;29:1–13.

47. Kindermann W. Do inhaled beta(2)-agonists have an ergogenic potential in non-asthmatic competitive athletes? Sports Med. 2007;37:95–102.[PubMed]

48. Davis E, Loiacono R, Summers RJ. The rush to adrenaline: drugs in sport acting on the beta-adrenergic system. Br J Pharmacol. 2008;154:584–597.[PMC free article][PubMed]

49. Bougault V, Boulet LP. Is there a potential link between indoor chlorinated pool environment and airway remodeling/inflammation in swimmers? Expert Rev Respir Med. 2012;6:469–471.[PubMed]

50. World Anti-Doping Agency The World Anti-Doping Code: The 2013 Prohibited List International Standard. 2013. [Accessed August 23, 2013]. Available from: http://www.wada-ama.org/Documents/World_Anti-Doping_Program/WADP-Prohibited-list/2013/WADA-Prohibited-List-2013-EN.pdf.

51. Petroczi A, Naughton DP. Potentially fatal new trend in performance enhancement: a cautionary note on nitrate. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2010;7:25.[PMC free article][PubMed]

52. Watson P, Hasegawa H, Roelands B, Piacentini MF, Looverie R, Meeusen R. Acute dopamine/noradrenaline reuptake inhibition enhances human exercise performance in warm, but not temperate conditions. J Physiol. 2005;565(Pt 3):873–883.[PMC free article][PubMed]

53. Schmitt L, Millet G, Robach P, et al. Influence of “living high-training low” on aerobic performance and economy of work in elite athletes. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2006;97:627–636.[PubMed]

54. Vardy J, Judge K. Can knowledge protect against acute mountain sickness? J Public Health. 2005;27:366–370.[PubMed]

55. Suedekum NA, Dieff R. Iron and the athlete. Curr Sports Med Rep. 2005;4:199–202.[PubMed]

56. Maughan RJ, Shirreffs SM. Nutrition for sports performance: issues and opportunities. Proc Nutr Soc. 2012;71:112–119.[PubMed]

57. Koshy KM, Griswold E, Schneeberger EE. Interstitial nephritis in a patient taking creatine. N Engl J Med. 1999;340:814–815.[PubMed]

58. Edmunds JW, Jayapalan S, DiMarco NM, Saboorian MH, Aukema HM. Creatine supplementation increases renal disease progression in Han:SPRD-cy rats. Am J Kidney Dis. 2001;37:73–78.[PubMed]

59. Saugy M, Avois L, Saudan C, et al. Cannabis and sport.

 

Tiu2

capabilities

. The story of Lance Armstrong has Tom Murray stating that “Some critics say the

 problem isn't athletes who break the rules but the rules themselves specifically, the prohibition on doping. Lance Armstrong's supporters are running out of plausible defenses

” (1)

. Because of athletes like Lance Armstrong, not only are fans retreating from loving the sport of cycling, but  people are beginning to doubt all athletes

 – 

 clean or not

 – 

 whether they are a fraud or a true elite athlete.

For instance, in today’s Major League Baseball (MLB), if an up and coming baseball

 player like Mike Trout were to hit over 50 homeruns in a season, the average fan may wonder if Trout is on steroids

. Referring to Baseball’s Almanac, the

 average number of home runs for a home run leader in MLB over the past 5 years (2009-2013) is 39 home runs in a season. Compare that to a 5

year span during MLB’s steroids era (1998

-2002) in which the average home run leader achieved 61 homers in a typical season. In addition to fans questioning if an athlete is cheating or not with PEDs, another key reason why there should be more regulation on PEDs

is because athletes won’t confess

to taking PEDs on their own accord

I find it very hard to believe that every doper out there suddenly decides to quit on his own accord

” (Routley 3)

. If leagues and our national government do not do something to stress the importance of clean athletes then cheating athletes will simply think that it is appropriate to take drugs such as steroids, stimulants, and painkillers. Clearly, those athletes that cheat will not stop themselves unless something impactful gets in their way. Some would argue that the only way to significantly reduce the usage of PEDs is to bring professional sports leagues and the government together to develop a meaningfully way to regulate it. For example, what if a professional baseball player gets caught taking PEDs? He is suspended or banned from league. If the government got involved and enforced regulation, this player not only would be

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