Abdul Sattar Edhi Essay In Urdu

Founded1951[1]
FounderAbdul Sattar Edhi
FocusEmergency Services, Orphans, Handicapped Persons, Shelters, Education, Healthcare, International Community Centers, Blood & Drug Bank, Air Ambulance Services, Marine And Coastal Service
Location

Area served

Social Welfare, Humanitarianism
MethodDonations and Grants

Key people

Abdul Sattar Edhi, co-founder and co-chair
Bilquis Edhi
Faisal Edhi
Websiteedhi.org

The Edhi Foundation (Urdu: ایدھی فاؤنڈیشن‬‎) is a non-profit social welfare program in Pakistan, founded by Abdul Sattar Edhi[4] in 1951. Edhi until his death on 8 July 2016 was the head of the organization and his wife Bilquis, a nurse, oversees the maternity and adoption services of the foundation. Its headquarters are in Karachi, Pakistan.

The Edhi Foundation provides 24-hour emergency assistance across the nation of Pakistan and abroad. The Foundation provides, among many other services, shelter for the destitute, free hospitals and medical care, drug rehabilitation services, and national and international relief efforts. Its main focuses are Emergency Services, Orphans, Handicapped Persons, Shelters, Education, Healthcare, International Community Centers, Blood & Drug Bank, air ambulance services, Marine And Coastal Services.

History[edit]

In 1951 Abdul Sattar Edhi bought a small shop in Mithadar area of Karachi and opened a free dispensary. From that small beginning Edhi has built up the Edhi Foundation. Edhi established his first welfare center in 1957 and then the Edhi Trust.[5] What started as one man operating from a single room in Karachi is now the Edhi Foundation. The foundation has over 300 centers across the country, in big cities, small towns and remote rural areas, providing medical aid, family planning and emergency assistance. They own air ambulances, providing quick access to far-flung areas.

In Karachi alone, the Edhi Foundation runs 8 hospitals providing free medical care, eye hospitals, diabetic centres, surgical units, a 4- bed cancer hospital and mobile dispensaries. In addition to these the Foundation also manages two blood banks in Karachi. As with other Edhi services, employed professionals and volunteers run these. The foundation has a Legal aid department, which provides free services and has secured the release of countless innocent prisoners. Commissioned doctors visit jails on a regular basis and also supply food and other essentials to the inmates. There are 15 " Apna Ghar" ["Our Home"] homes for the destitute children, runaways, and psychotics.

On 25 June 2013, Edhi's kidneys failed; it was announced that he would be on dialysis for the rest of his life unless he found a kidney donor. Edhi died on 8 July 2016 at the age of 88 due to kidney failure after having been placed on a ventilator. His last wishes included the request that his organs were to be donated but due to his ill health, only his corneas were suitable. He was laid to rest at the Edhi Village Karachi.

The foundation also has an education scheme, which apart from teaching reading and writing covers various vocational activities such as driving, pharmacy and para-medical training. The emphasis is on self-sufficiency. The Edhi Foundation has branches in several countries where they provide relief to refugees in the United States, UK, Canada, Japan, and Bangladesh. In 1991 the Foundation provided aid to victims of the Gulf war and earthquake victims in Iran and Egypt. The organization has held the Guinness record for world's "largest volunteer ambulance organization" since 1997.[6] In 2016, after the death of Abdul Sattar Edhi, the state bank of Pakistan urged bank CEOs to donate to the foundation.[7]

Services[edit]

The Edhi Foundation provides a number of services, emergency and non-emergency, to the general public. In addition to emergency medical services and private ambulance services, the organization also renders aid to women and children in need, assists with missing persons cases, and helps in covering burial and graveyard costs of unclaimed and unidentified bodies during times of disaster and tragedy.[8]

Ambulance Services[edit]

As of March 2016, the Edhi Foundation owns over 1,800 private ambulance vans stationed in areas across Pakistan.[8] The ambulance dispatchers in Karachi, one of the busiest cities in Pakistan, have reported up to 6,000 calls a day, with the average response time for each incident falling within 10 minutes.[9] It was also an Edhi ambulance which responded to and picked up the body of the American journalist, Daniel Pearl, when he was killed in 2002.[9]

The organization also owns two private jets and one helicopter to assist in moving victims from hard-to-reach locations, especially during the event of a natural disaster.[10] In addition to land and air assistance, Edhi Foundation also hosts 28 rescue boats to aid during floods and in cases of shipwrecks and disaster along the Arabian Ocean coast.[11]

Hospital Services[edit]

The organization runs several private outpatient hospitals located in Pakistan. Additional medical facilities include a diabetic center, a nurse training center, immunization centers, and blood banks, including emergency banks during times of natural disasters or tragedies.[7]

Childcare Services[edit]

Bilquis Edhi, co-head of the Edhi Foundation, is responsible for overseeing children's and women's services within the organization. Services she heads currently for children include the jhoola (baby cradle) project, a child adoption center, and an abandoned children's welfare center. Jhoola is the Urdu word for "cradle".[12] Most of the Edhi emergency centers have a jhoola located outside the venue for mothers to leave their infants, regardless of the current situation they may be in.[13] These children are taken into custody and are taken care of, often being adopted by pre-screened families.

International Services[edit]

The Edhi Foundation has reached out to international communities and assisted with the setup of several offices overseas which assist with donations, fundraising, and especially financially aiding Pakistanis who have flown overseas in need of urgent medical attention. In addition to providing their regular services, the overseas foundation offices often help with community needs as necessary. In 2005, the Edhi Foundation provided $100,000 in aid to relief efforts following Hurricane Katrina.[9]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

External links[edit]

Abdul Sattar Edhi (Urdu: عبدالستار ایدھی‬‎; c.  28 February 1928 – 8 July 2016)[1][2][3] was a Pakistaniphilanthropist, ascetic, and humanitarian who founded the Edhi Foundation, which runs the world's largest volunteer ambulance network,[11] along with homeless shelters, animal shelter,[12]rehab centres, and orphanages across Pakistan.[13] After his death, the Edhi Foundation is run by his son Faisal Edhi.

Born in Bantva, Gujarat, British India in 1928, Edhi moved to Karachi where he established a free dispensary for Karachi's low-income residents. Edhi's charitable activities expanded in 1957 when an Asian flu epidemic swept through Karachi. Donations allowed him to buy his first ambulance the same year. He later expanded his charity network with the help of his wife Bilquis Edhi.[13][14]

Over his lifetime, the Edhi Foundation expanded backed entirely with private donations including establishing a network of 1,800 minivan ambulances. By the time of his death, Edhi was registered as a parent or guardian of nearly 20,000 children.[2] He is known as Angel of Mercy and is considered to be Pakistan's "most respected" and legendary figure.[4][15] In 2013, The Huffington Post claimed that he might be "the world's greatest living humanitarian".[16]

Edhi maintained a hands-off management style and was often critical of the clergy and politicians.[17] Edhi was a strong proponent of religious tolerance in Pakistan and extended support to the victims of Hurricane Katrina and the 1985 famine in Ethiopia.[18][19] Edhi was nominated several times for the Nobel Peace Prize, including by Malala Yousafzai.[20][21] Edhi received several awards including Gandhi Peace Award and the UNESCO-Madanjeet Singh Prize.[22]

Early life[edit]

He was born in Bantva in the Gujarat, British India into a Memon family.[23][1][24][25] In his biography, he said his mother would give him 1 paisa for his meals and another to give to a poor child. When he was eleven, his mother became paralysed from a stroke and she died when Edhi was 19. His personal experiences and care for his mother during her illness caused him to develop a system of services for old, mentally ill and challenged world. The partition of India led Edhi and his family to migrate to Pakistan in 1947. [26][27] He then shifted to Karachi to work in a market at a wholesale shop. He initially started as a peddler, and later became a commission agent selling cloth in the wholesale market in Karachi. After a few years, he established a free dispensary with help from his community.

He told NPR in 2009 that "I saw people lying on the pavement ... The flu had spread in Karachi, and there was no one to treat them. So I set up benches and got medical students to volunteer. I was penniless and begged for donations on the street. And people gave. I bought this 8-by-8 room to start my work."[28]

Date of birth[edit]

Edhi in his autobiography himself revealed that he didn't know his date of birth. But according to media reports published following his death, he was born on 1 January 1928.[30][31][32][33][34][35][23] However, in 2017, Google Doodle marked his date of birth as 28 February 1928 following which several reports emerged in favour of 28 February 1928.[36][37]The Sun noted "Google says Edhi celebrated his birthday on February 28, however reports suggest he was in fact born on January 1."[38]Metro noted "There has been uncertainty about when his birthday is. Some have reported it as 1 January in the past – however, now it is widely believed to be 28 February."[39]Wired noted that "Previous reports, including those surrounding his funeral, state Edhi was born on January 1. An obituary in The Guardian doesn't list a birthday date, simply putting circa 1926. The date January 1 can, at times, be used in place of a specific date when only a year is known, but this tends to be avoided due to the confusion it can cause. However, Google has since told WIRED it got the February 28 date directly from Edhi's family."[40]

The Nation reported that Bilquis Edhi, the wife of Edhi in an interview to a TV channel said 'We never even celebrated his birthday while he was alive. We were unaware of the day he was born."[41][42]Daily Times reported "There is some confusion over his actual birth date as Edhi himself was unsure and believed he was born between 1926 and 1928."[43]

Charity work[edit]

"People have become educated, but have yet to become human."

— Abdul Sattar Edhi[44]

Edhi resolved to dedicate his life to aiding the poor, and over the next sixty years, he single-handedly changed the face of welfare in Pakistan. Edhi founded the Edhi Foundation. Additionally, he established a welfare trust, named the Edhi Trust with an initial sum of five thousand rupees, the trust was later renamed as the Bilqis Edhi Trust. Regarded as a guardian for the poor, Edhi began receiving numerous donations, which allowed him to expand his services. To this day, the Edhi Foundation continues to grow in both size and service and is currently the largest welfare organisation in Pakistan. Since its inception, the Edhi Foundation has rescued over 20,000 abandoned infants, rehabilitated over 50,000 orphans and has trained over 40,000 nurses.[47] It also runs more than 330 welfare centres in rural and urban Pakistan that operate as food kitchens, rehabilitation homes, shelters for abandoned women and children, and clinics for the mentally handicapped.[48]

The Edhi Foundation, founded by Edhi, runs the world's largest volunteer ambulance service (operating 1,500 of them) and offers 24-hour emergency services. It also operates free nursing homes, orphanages, clinics, women's shelters, and rehab centres for drug addicts and mentally ill individuals.[49] It has run relief operations in Africa, Middle East, the Caucasus region, eastern Europe, and the United States where it provided aid following Hurricane Katrina in 2005. His son Faisal Edhi, wife Bilquis Edhi, and daughters managed the daily operations of the organization during his ill health.[47] He is often referred to as Pakistan's version of Mother Teresa, and the BBC wrote that he was considered "Pakistan's most respected figure and was seen by some as almost a saint."[15]

Travel issues[edit]

In the early 1980s, Edhi was arrested by Israeli troops while entering Lebanon. In 2006, he was detained in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, for 16 hours. In January 2008, U.S. immigration officials interrogated Edhi at the John F. Kennedy Airport in New York City for over eight hours and seized his passport and other documents. When asked about the frequent detention Edhi said, "The only explanation I can think of is my beard and my dress."As he was a Muslim and he was trying to help people as he had a beard the "authorities" thought of him as a terrorist. [51]

Personal life[edit]

In 1965 Edhi married Bilquis, a nurse who worked at the Edhi dispensary.[52] They had four children, two daughters and two sons.[4] Bilquis runs the free maternity home at the headquarters in Karachi and organizes the adoption of abandoned babies including those born out of wedlock. Edhi was known for his ascetic lifestyle, owning only two pairs of clothes, never taking a salary from his organisation and living in an apartment next to his organization's office.[15][54][55] Edhi stated that he had "never been a very religious person."[56]

Illness and death[edit]

On 25 June 2013, Edhi's kidneys failed; it was announced that he would be on dialysis for the rest of his life unless he found a kidney donor.[57] Edhi died on 8 July 2016 at the age of 88 due to kidney failure after having been placed on a ventilator. His last wishes included the request that his organs were to be donated but due to his ill health, only his corneas were suitable.[58] He was laid to rest at the Edhi Village Karachi.[59]

Reactions and funeral[edit]

Reactions to his death came from several high-ranking Pakistani officials. Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif said "We have lost a great servant of humanity. He was the real manifestation of love for those who were socially vulnerable, impoverished, helpless and poor."[15] Chief of Army Staff Raheel Sharif, called him a "true humanitarian".[4]

Prime Minister Sharif declared national mourning on the day following Edhi's death and announced a state funeral for him. He became the third Pakistani to receive historical state gun carriage funeral after Muhammad Ali Jinnah and Zia ul Haq. At the time, he was the only Pakistani without a state authority or a state role to receive a state funeral. According to Inter-Services Public Relations, state honours were given to Edhi by a guard of honour and a 19-gun salute. The attendees at his Janazah (funeral prayer) included dignitaries such as Mamnoon Hussain (President of Pakistan), Raza Rabbani (the Chairman of the Senate of Pakistan), Ishratul Ibad (provincial Governor of Sindh), Qaim Ali Shah and Shehbaz Sharif (the Chief Ministers of Sindh and Punjab), Raheel Sharif (Chief of Army Staff) along with Muhammad Zakaullah and Sohail Aman (the Chiefs of Staff of the Pakistani Navy and Air Force), at the National Stadium, Karachi.[60][61]

Legacy[edit]

On 4 July 2016, Defence Housing Authority announced its decision to rename 5 km long Beach Avenue on Seaview as 'Abdul Sattar Edhi Avenue' in recognition of the welfare services by Edhi.[62][63]

On 28 February 2017, Google celebrated Edhi with a Google Doodle hailing his "super-efficient" ambulance service.[64][65]

On 31 March 2017, a ₨. 50 cupro-nickel commemorative coin was issued upon the recommendation of the State Bank of Pakistan to the Prime Minister Sharif, who decided to commemorate Edhi’s services on the national level.[66] Edhi became the only social worker and the fifth Pakistani personality to have been honoured with a commemorative coin.[67]

Honors and awards[edit]

International awards[edit]

  • Ramon Magsaysay Award for Public Service (1986)[68][69]
  • Lenin Peace Prize (1988)[70]
  • Paul Harris Fellow from Rotary International (1993)[70]
  • Peace Prize from the former USSR, for services during the Armenian earthquake disaster (1988)
  • Hamdan Award for volunteers in Humanitarian Medical Services (2000), UAE[70]
  • International Balzan Prize (2000) for Humanity, Peace and Brotherhood, Italy[70]
  • Peace and Harmony Award (2001), Delhi
  • Peace Award (2004), Mumbai
  • Peace Award (2005), Hyderabad Deccan
  • Gandhi Peace Award (2007), Delhi
  • Peace Award (2008), Seoul
  • Honorary doctorate from the Institute of Business Administration Karachi (2006).
  • UNESCO-Madanjeet Singh Prize (2009)[71][72]
  • Ahmadiyya Muslim Peace Prize (2010)[73][74]
  • Honorary Doctorate by the University of Bedfordshire (2010)[75]

National awards[edit]

  • Silver Jubilee Shield by College of Physicians and Surgeons (1962–1987)[70]
  • Moiz ur rehman Award (2015)[70]
  • The Social Worker of Sub-Continent by Government of Sindh (1989)[70]
  • Nishan-e-Imtiaz, civil decoration from the Government of Pakistan (1989)[70]
  • Recognition of meritorious services to oppressed humanity during the 1980s by Ministry of Health and Social Welfare, Government of Pakistan (1989)[70]
  • Pakistan Civic Award from the Pakistan Civic Society (1992)[70]
  • Jinnah Award for Outstanding Services to Pakistan was conferred in April 1998 by The Jinnah Society. This was the first Jinnah Award conferred on any person in Pakistan.[76]
  • Shield of Honor by Pakistan Army (E & C)[70]
  • Khidmat Award by the Pakistan Academy of Medical Sciences[70]
  • Bacha Khan Aman (Peace) Award in 1991
  • Human Rights Award by Pakistan Human Rights Society[70]
  • 2013 Person of the Year by the readers of The Express Tribune[77]

Proposals[edit]

In 2011 Yousaf Raza Gilani, the Prime Minister of Pakistan recommended Edhi for a nomination of Nobel Peace Prize.[78] Again in early 2016, a petition signed by 30,000 for a Nobel Peace prize to Edhi was moved by Ziauddin Yousafzai, the father of Malala Yousafzai.[79] In her condolence message on Edhi's death, broadcast by BBC Urdu Service Malala quoted that "as a Nobel Peace Prize winner, I hold the right to nominate people for the prize and I have nominated Abdul Sattar Edhi".[80][81]

Najam Sethi, a governing board member of Pakistan Cricket Board proposed to rename Gaddafi Stadium after Edhi.[82]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ abcdAla, Mustard; T.A.N.S. (12 November 2006). "Honorary Doctorate Degree byIBAA awarded to Abdul Sattar Edhi". DAWN. Archived from the original on 4 January 2009. Retrieved 24 March 2016.  Retrieved 24 March 2016
  2. ^ abcBoone, Jon (13 July 2016). "Abdul Sattar Edhi obituary". The Guardian. Retrieved 28 February 2017. 
  3. ^ ab"Celebrated humanitarian Abdul Sattar Edhi passes away in Karachi". DAWN.COM. 8 July 2016. Retrieved 28 February 2017. 
  4. ^ abcdAhmed, Munir (8 July 2016). "Pakistan's legendary 'Angel of Mercy' Abdul Edhi dies at age 88". Toronto Star. Retrieved 8 July 2016. 
  5. ^"The richest poor man – The Express Tribune". tribune.com.pk. 28 April 2016. Retrieved 22 July 2017. 
  6. ^"The Prime Minister Declared A Day Of National Mourning". Geo News. Retrieved 8 July 2016. 
  7. ^"Revered humanitarian Abdul Sattar Edhi passes away". ARY News. Retrieved 8 July 2016. 
  8. ^"Abdul Sattar Edhi: A life in pictures – The Express Tribune". tribune.com.pk. 9 July 2016. Retrieved 22 July 2016. 
  9. ^"Abdul Sattar Edhi: Greatest Philanthropist In Pakistan's History". foreign policy news.org. 3 November 2017. Retrieved 3 November 2017. 
  10. ^"The day I met Abdul Sattar Edhi, a living saint". The Daily Telegraph. 10 April 2011. Retrieved 24 March 2016. 
  11. ^"Abdul Sattar Edhi: Why Google honours him today". www.aljazeera.com. Retrieved 2017-06-26. 
  12. ^"KARACHI: Animal care still a distant dream". Dawn (newspaper). 22 July 2008. Retrieved 20 August 2017. 
  13. ^ abDawn.com, AFP (8 July 2016). "Celebrated humanitarian Abdul Sattar Edhi passes away in Karachi". Retrieved 9 July 2016. 
  14. ^Masood, Salman (8 July 2016). "Abdul Sattar Edhi, Pakistan's 'Father Teresa,' Dies at 88". The New York Times. Retrieved 9 July 2016. 
  15. ^ abcd"Pakistani philanthropist Abdul Sattar Edhi dies aged 88". BBC News. Retrieved 9 July 2016. 
  16. ^The World's Greatest Living Humanitarian May Be From Pakistan, The Huffington Post. Retrieved 24 March 2016
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  18. ^(www.dw.com), Deutsche Welle. "Abdul Sattar Edhi – A life bigger than accolades | Asia | DW.COM | 08.07.2016". DW.COM. Retrieved 2016-08-14. 
  19. ^"Edhi Foundation gave $100,000 for Katrina relief efforts: US ambassador". Retrieved 2016-08-14. 
  20. ^Dawn.com (2016-07-09). "No one deserves Nobel Peace Prize more than Abdul Sattar Edhi, says Malala". Retrieved 2016-08-14. 
  21. ^Desk, Monitoring (2016-07-10). "No one deserves Nobel more than Edhi, says Malala". DAWN.COM. Retrieved 2017-06-26. 
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  23. ^ ab"Name the new airport after Edhi". thenews.com.pk. Retrieved 22 July 2016. 
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  27. ^"Abdul Sattar Edhi, legendary Pakistani social worker, dies at 88". CBS News. Retrieved 9 July 2016. 
  28. ^Julie McCarthy, Pakistan Philanthropist Cares For Karachi's Forgotten, NPR, 28 July 2009. Retrieved 18 July 2016.
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  30. ^"Nation mourns Abdul Sattar Edhi's demise – Pakistan – Dunya News". dunyanews.tv. Retrieved 28 February 2017. 
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  32. ^"Significant people born on 1st January". Aaj News. Retrieved 28 February 2017. 
  33. ^"Dailytimes | Late Abdul Sattar Edhi's Qul held amid tight security". dailytimes.com.pk. Retrieved 28 February 2017. 
  34. ^"The gems world lost in 2016 – Pakistan – Dunya News". dunyanews.tv. Retrieved 28 February 2017. 
  35. ^"Abdul Sattar Edhi: Why Google honours him today". www.aljazeera.com. 28 February 2017. Retrieved 28 February 2017. 
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  38. ^Metro.co.uk, Imogen Groome for (28 February 2017). "Who is Abdul Sattar Edhi, the man who dedicated his life to helping the poor?". Metro. Retrieved 28 February 2017. 
  39. ^Woollaston, Victoria (28 February 2017). "Google Doodle celebrates 'Angel of Mercy' Abdul Sattar Edhi". WIRED UK. Retrieved 28 February 2017. 
  40. ^"'We never even celebrated his birthday while he was alive,' says Bilquis Edhi". The Nation. 28 February 2017. Retrieved 28 February 2017. 
  41. ^""I pray for him every day," Bilquis Edhi on the humanitarian's 89th birthday | Pakistan – Geo.tv". www.geo.tv. 28 February 2017. Retrieved 28 February 2017. 
  42. ^"Dailytimes | 'Pakistan's Father Teresa': Abdul Sattar Edhi". dailytimes.com.pk. 28 February 2017. Retrieved 28 February 2017. 
  43. ^Masood, Salman. "Abdus Sattar Edhi, Pakistan's 'Father Teresa,' Dies at 88 - NYTimes.com". nytimes.com. Retrieved 9 July 2016. 
  44. ^ abWeb Desk (9 July 2016). "ABDUL SATTAR EDHI LAID TO REST IN KARACHI". Radio Pakistan. Archived from the original on 10 July 2016. Retrieved 9 July 2016. 
  45. ^Web Desk (July 9, 2016). "Serving from cradle to death". The Nation News Paper. Retrieved July 9, 2016. 
  46. ^"Pakistan's saviour of the desperate". BBC News. 15 March 2001. Retrieved 24 March 2016. 
  47. ^Khan, M Ilyas (29 January 2008). "Pakistan aid worker stuck in US". BBC News. Retrieved 25 March 2016. 
  48. ^Richard Covington (2 September 2008). "What One Person Can Do". In David Elliot Cohen. What Matters: The World's Preeminent Photojournalists and Thinkers Depict Essential Issues of Our Time. Sterling Publishing. pp. 309–323. ISBN 978-1-4027-5834-8. 
  49. ^"Abdul Sattar Edhi: He was a hero to Pakistan's poor and needy". The Washington Post. Retrieved 9 July 2016. 
  50. ^"Renowned Pakistani Philanthropist Abdul Sattar Edhi Dies at 88". voanews.com. Retrieved 9 July 2016. 
  51. ^The Telegraph (July 21, 2016). "Abdul Sattar Edhi, philanthropist known as the 'Father Teresa' of Pakistan – obituary". The Telegraph. Retrieved September 14, 2016. 
  52. ^Edhi suffers from kidney failure, to stay on dialysis rest of his life. The Express Tribune. 25 June 2013. Retrieved 24 March 2016.
  53. ^"Abdul Sattar Edhi passes away". The Express Tribune. 8 July 2016. Retrieved 8 July 2016. 
  54. ^Times, The Sindh (9 July 2016). "Abdul Sattar Edhi laid to rest at the Edhi Village Karachi – The Sindh Times". thesindhtimes.com. Retrieved 9 July 2016. 
  55. ^Parvez Jabri (9 July 2016). "19-Gun Salute presented to Edhi's Coffin". Business Recorder. Retrieved 9 July 2016. 
  56. ^"Army Chief, President, Senate Chairman, others offer Edhi's funeral". Dunya News. 9 July 2016. Retrieved 9 July 2016. 
  57. ^"DHA Karachi renames Beach Avenue after Abdul Sattar Edhi". Express Tribune. Associated Press of Pakistan. 5 July 2016. Retrieved 20 August 2017. 
  58. ^"Karachi's Sea View renames as 'Abdul Sattar Edhi Avenue'". The News International. 13 July 2016. Retrieved 20 August 2017. 
  59. ^"Abdul Sattar Edhi: Why Google honours him today". Al Jazeera. 28 February 2017. Retrieved 28 February 2017.

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