This article is about the reference management software. For other uses of the word, see Endnote (disambiguation).
EndNote is a commercial reference management software package, used to manage bibliographies and references when writing essays and articles. It is produced by Clarivate Analytics (previously by Thomson Reuters).
EndNote groups citations into "libraries" with the file extension *.enl and a corresponding *.data folder.
There are several ways to add a reference to a library: manually, or by exporting, importing, copying from another EndNote library, or connecting from EndNote. The program presents the user with a window containing a dropdown menu from which to select the type of reference they require (e.g., book, congressional legislation, film, newspaper article, etc.), and fields ranging from the general (author, title, year) to those specific to the kind of reference (abstract, author, ISBN, running time, etc.)
Most bibliographic databases allow users to export references to their EndNote libraries. This enables the user to select multiple citations and saves the user from having to manually enter the citation information and the abstracts. Some databases (e.g., PubMed) requires the user to select citations, select a specific format, and save them as .txt files. The user can then import the citations into the EndNote software. It is also possible to search library catalogs and free databases, such as PubMed, from within the EndNote software program itself.
If the user fills out the necessary fields, EndNote can automatically format the citation into any of over 2,000 different styles the user chooses. For example, listed below are some citations from Gray's Anatomy using several different styles:
1910 Anatomy, descriptive and applied. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger. [18th ed.]
|APA 5th||Gray, H. (1910). Anatomy, descriptive and applied (18th ed.). Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger.|
|MLA||Gray, Henry. Anatomy, Descriptive and Applied. 18th ed. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger, 1910.|
|New England J Medicine||1. Gray H. Anatomy, descriptive and applied. 18th ed. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger; 1910.|
In Windows, EndNote creates a file with an *.enl extension, along with a *.data folder containing various MySQL files with *.myi and *.myd extensions. EndNote can be installed so that its features, like Cite While You Write, appear in the Tools menu of Microsoft Word and OpenOffice.org Writer.
EndNote can export citation libraries as HTML, plain text, Rich Text Format, or XML. From version X.7.2, one library can be shared with up to 14 other EndNote users. The data is synchronized via the EndNote cloud service, with everybody having full write access to the library.
EndNote can also organize PDFs on the user's hard drive (or full text on the web) through links to files or by inserting copies of PDFs. It is also possible to save a single image, document, Excel spreadsheet, or other file type to each reference in an EndNote library. Starting from EndNote X version 1.0.1, formatting support for OpenDocument files (ODT) using the Format Paper command is supported.
Legal dispute with Zotero
In September 2008, Thomson Reuters, the owners of EndNote, sued the Commonwealth of Virginia for US$10 million and requested an injunction against competing reference management software.George Mason University's Center for History and New Media had developed Zotero, a free/open source extension to Mozilla Firefox. Thomson Reuters alleges that the Zotero developers reverse engineered and/or decompiled EndNote, that Zotero can transform proprietary EndNote citation style files (.ens) to the open Citation Style Language format, that they host files converted in this manner, and that they abuse the "EndNote" trademark in describing this feature. Thomson Reuters claims that this is violation of the site license agreement. They also added a restrictive click-thru license to their styles download web site. George Mason University responded that it would not renew its site license for EndNote, that "anything created by users of Zotero belongs to those users, and that it should be as easy as possible for Zotero users to move to and from the software as they wish, without friction." The journal Nature editorialized that "the virtues of interoperability and easy data-sharing among researchers are worth restating. Imagine if Microsoft Word or Excel files could be opened and saved only in these proprietary formats, for example. It would be impossible for OpenOffice and other such software to read and save these files using open standards — as they can legally do." The case was dismissed on June 4, 2009.
EndNote Web, a web-based implementation of EndNote, offers integration with the ISI Web of Knowledge.
The following example shows two records ready for import as a text file. Such files normally use the file extension .enw.%0 Book %A Geoffrey Chaucer %D 1957 %T The Works of Geoffrey Chaucer %E F. %I Houghton %C Boston %N 2nd %0 Journal Article %A Herbert H. Clark %D 1982 %T Hearers and Speech Acts %B Language %V 58 %P 332-373 %0 Thesis %A Cantucci, Elena %T Permian strata in South-East Asia %D 1990 %I University of California, Berkeley %9 Dissertation
Tags and fields
The left table is a list of EndNote tags and their associated field names. The right table is a list of standard reference types for the field. Compare this scheme with the much older refer scheme which uses a similar syntax. Entire records as separated by a single blank line.:121
Version history and compatibility
Niles and Associates produced early versions of EndNote.
- EndNote X8.2 for Windows, released 9 January 2018.
- EndNote X8 for Windows & Mac, released 8 November 2016.
- EndNote X7.5 for Windows & Mac, released 2 February 2016.
- EndNote X7.4 for Windows & Mac, released 11 August 2015.
- EndNote X7.3 for Windows & Mac, released 1 April 2015.
- EndNote X7.2 for Windows & Mac, released 30 September 2014.
- EndNote X7.1 for Windows & Mac, released 2 April 2014.
- EndNote X7.0.1 for Mac, released 13 November 2013.
- EndNote X7.0.2 for Windows, released 23 October 2013.
- EndNote X7 for Mac, released July 2013.
- EndNote X7 for Windows, released 20 May 2013; Compatible with Microsoft Word 2013.
- EndNote X6 for Windows, released 6 August 2012; EndNote X6 for Mac, released Q4 2012, compatible with OS X 10.8.
- EndNote X5 for Mac, released September 2011, introduced official compatibility with OS X 10.7 Lion.
- EndNote X5 for Windows, released 21 June 2011. Compatible with Microsoft Word 2010
- EndNote X4 for Mac, released 23 August 2010. Introduced official compatibility with Mac OS X 10.6 Snow Leopard. Initially not compatible with Microsoft Office 2011, a compatibility update was subsequently made available on the EndNote website.
- EndNote X4 for Windows, released 15 June 2010. Introduced official compatibility with Microsoft Windows 7. Introduced official compatibility with Microsoft Word 2010 (required an update via Help -> Program Updates, or directly from the Endnote website).
- EndNote X3 for Mac, released 26 August 2009. Not compatible with Microsoft Word 2011. EndNote X3 and later are not supported on systems running Mac OS X 10.4 Tiger.
- EndNote X3 for Windows, released 17 June 2009. Not compatible with Microsoft Word 2010; Word 2010 cannot be started without disabling the EndNote Addin.
- EndNote X2 for Mac, released 3 September 2008.
- EndNote X2 for Windows, released 11 June 2008. The "Cite While You Write" feature in EndNote X2 was originally not compatible with 64-bit versions of Windows, but a patch can fix this issue. Last update: Version 12.0.4 (build 4459).
- EndNote X1 for Mac, released 21 August 2007. The Cite While You Write feature of EndNote X1 for Mac OS was originally only compatible with Word 10.1.2-10.1.6 and Word 2004. Due to changes in the way third party addins were supported in Word 2008, Cite While You Write was not natively compatible with Word 2008. A patch was released on June 26, 2008 that restored cite while you write functionality to Word 2008.
- EndNote X1 for Windows, released 20 August 2007. EndNote X1 and later are compatible with Windows Vista.
- EndNote X for Mac, released 25 August 2006. EndNote X and later are "Universal applications" that execute natively on both PPC and Intel-based Macs. Introduced compatibility with Mac OS X 10.5 Leopard. EndNote libraries that have been opened and used with EndNote version X or greater should not be subsequently used with an EndNote version earlier than version X.
- EndNote X for Windows, released 9 June 2006. EndNote libraries that have been opened and used with EndNote version X or greater should not be subsequently used with an EndNote version earlier than version X.
- EndNote 9 for Mac, released 29 August 2005. Introduced compatibility with Mac OS X 10.4 Tiger. Due to major compatibility issues, it is not recommend to run EndNote 9 or earlier on OS X 10.5 Leopard.
- EndNote 9 for Windows, released 21 June 2005.
- EndNote 8 for Mac, released 30 November 2004. Introduced compatibility with Mac OS X 10.3 Panther.
- EndNote 8 for Windows, released 21 June 2004.
- EndNote 7 for Mac, released 26 August 2003. Not certified compatible with OS X 10.3 Panther (users can install and run EndNote 7 on a Panther system, but there are some minor compatibility issues).
- EndNote 7 for Windows, released 24 June 2003.
- EndNote 6 for Mac, released 5 August 2002. Not certified compatible with OS X 10.3 Panther (it is possible to install and run EndNote 6 on a Panther system, but there are some minor compatibility issues).
- EndNote 6 for Windows, released 17 June 2002.
- EndNote 5 for Mac, released 19 July 2001. EndNote 5 and earlier are not compatible with any version of OS X.
- EndNote 5 for Windows, released 11 June 2001.
- EndNote 4 for Mac & Windows released 6 March 2000.
- EndNote 3 for Mac & Windows.
- EndNote 2 for Mac & Windows.
- EndNote Plus for Mac
- EndNote for Mac
- BibTeX – a text-based data format used by LaTeX
- refer – a similar, but not identical, data scheme supported on UNIX-like systems
- RIS – a text-based data scheme from Research Information Systems
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- ^Thomson Reuters | Thomson Reuters Ships EndNote X3 For Mac Os X
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From the References menu, select New reference. . . This calls up a window in which citation data can be entered by hand. Select the appropriate reference type from the drop-down menu, and enter data into fields as described below. Not all fields have to be used. Use the Enter key to begin a new line in the same field; use the Tab key to jump to the next field.
Names: Author and editor names must be listed one name per line. Using the format lastname, firstname is recommended. Use periods after initials, such as Smith, A. A., or a space between initials, Smith, A A
By default, the author field is set to work with the author term list. Subsequent occurrences of a name will automatically be filled in. To accept a suggested name, press the Enter or Tab key. If a name hasn’t already been used in the library, it will be in red text. To disable this feature, go to the Preferences option in the Edit menu.
- For anonymous works, leave the author field blank, unless the author is actually listed as “Anonymous”
- For works with many authors, include as many authors as known. If all authors are not known, enter et al. or and others as the last author name, followed by a comma.
- For corporate authors (such as the U. S. Centers for Disease Control), enter the name followed by a comma. (This prevents EndNote from inverting the name.) For multi-layered corporate authors, like U. S. Centers for Disease Control, National Center for Health Statistics, enter the name like this: U. S. Centers for Disease Control,,National Center for Health Statistics (that’s two commas between the two levels, none at the end). For three- or more level names, use two commas between the first two levels, one between other levels, none at the end.
- For complex author names, enter names in this format: de Gaulle, Charles and Smith, Alfred, Jr.
Year: Enter the four-digit year (such as 1987) or in press or in preparation, as appropriate.
Titles: Enter titles without a period or any other punctuation at the end. For long titles, do not use the Enter key; just allow the title to wrap around to the next line. It is best to enter the title capitalized as it will appear in the bibliography, as output styles cannot handle more than one type of title capitalization per reference (such as an article title and a journal title).
Journal: Enter the full journal title. By default, the journal title field is set to work with the journal term list. Subsequent occurrences of a title will automatically be filled in. To accept a suggested journal title, press the Tab key. If desired, enter the journal title abbreviation in the Alternate Journal field. See the Term List LibGuide for information about the journals term list and importing the NLM medical journal and other types of journal title abbreviations.
Pages: Page ranges can be entered in full (342-346) or condensed (342-6) format. Do not use commas in page numbers in the thousands.
Edition: Enter 1st, 2nd, etc. as appropriate; do not include edition or ed. When EndNote formats a bibliography, it does not reformat the information in this field.
Date: Enter dates as appropriate. When EndNote formats a bibliography, it does not reformat the information in this field.
ID Numbers: EndNote has a number of fields for identifying numbers. The DOI is for the DOI (digital object identifier) for online articles. The Accession Number is for numbers identifying references in a database, like the PMID number in MEDLINE and PubMed.
Keywords: Enter keywords associated with the reference, such as subject descriptors, class name, project title, etc. By default, the Keyword field is set to work with the keyword term list. Subsequent occurrences of a keyword will be automatically filled in. To accept a suggested keyword, press the Enter or Tab key.
Notes: Enter personal notes about the work.
Abstract: Enter a brief description of the work. When references are imported from databases, often the abstracts are imported too.
URL: Enter the uniform resource locator (Web address). With a URL in this field, use the Open Link command from the References menu to launch the browser and open that site. For this to work properly, the URL, beginning with http://, must be the only information in this field. This can also be used to link to files on a local computer.
For information on the use of other fields, consult Help in EndNote toolbar.
Importing from databases
This is a quicker and easier method of getting citations into EndNote rather than entering references manually. Depending on the electronic resource you use, there will be different steps to follow in export and import your references. To export, select the desired references and follow the instructions in the tables from the Endnote Import/Export Guide. To import into EndNote, go to the File menu, then select Import... then follow the instructions listed in the table. Note: Import filters must be saved in the c:\program files\endnotex-\filters. [Note: Replace x- with version of EndNote used]