Illustration: Ratna Sagar Shrestha/ THT
Nepal is rich in biodiversity. There are various types of flora and fauna found in Nepal. For example, yarshaghumba (Cordyceps sinensis) and the one-horned rhino are the most valuable flora and fauna found in Nepal, among others.
Every year many people including children go in search of yarshagumba risking their life. The one-horned rhino, which is found in Chitwan, is also rare fauna found in Nepal. Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve, which is near my place in the Sagarmatha Zone, is home to a variety of flora and fauna. Varieties of birds, and arna (wild buffalo) are among them. Due to lack of concern, these birds and arna are on the verge of extinction. Check-up on a regular basis should be done to figure out the extinction of these species. A suitable environment should be maintained in order to help the flora and fauna adjust in their own habitat.
— Nikita Shrestha, Udayapur
Nepal is a small and beautiful country with diversified wildlife. There are many wildlife and medicinal herbs which cannot be found in other countries. Many flora and fauna are extinct and others are on the verge of extinction. Many wildlife, conservation areas and national parks have been established in different parts of the country and are doing a good job. The population of tigers has increased by 63 per cent as per the last survey of 2009. There are 120 royal Bengal tigers and the world’s largest concentration of one-horned rhino is in Chitwan.
We must take several steps and initiations to protect the endangered species. The first step is to get knowledge about the endangered species and try to maintain a good and suitable environment for them. Strict security system should be put up in different national parks, wildlife reserves and conservational areas to stop the shooting, trapping and poaching of the endangered species. Strict rules and laws must be made and implemented strictly according to the law. If anyone is found harming wildlife, the person should be given strict punishment. Lastly, we all must unite together with a common aim to protect all the endangered animals.
— Smarika Gharti
The flora and fauna is nature’s gift. Nepal boasts of a verdant forest which provides shelter to substantial flora and fauna. And there are a few species which are very unique to Nepal including one-horned-rhino, spiny babbler, Nepali orchid, among others. The spiny babblers used to fly over the paddy fields of my village in Gothatar and I have sweet memories of the same. Now most of those paddy fields have vanished compelling the winged friends to fly away from their natural habitat. Where have they gone? This question still haunts me!
Similarly, the flora and fauna of my place has been annihilated by rampant deforestation. Who is to blame for this rampage? Lack of knowledge and awareness, an individual’s apathy to their surroundings, lacks of semblance of the government are some of the plausible reasons behind this lamentable behaviour. Reforestation programmes including indigenous plant, long-lasting eco-friendly programmes, tough rules and regulation against wrongdoers, and self-realisation above all can help protect the flora and fauna from disappearing from the planet.
— Rajan Pandit, Gothatar
There was a variety of flora and fauna in my village, but they are few in number now. In fact, Nepal treasures a variety of flora and fauna in all parts of the country like the rhododendron, jatamansi et cetera. Some are on the verge of extinction. Not only flora, but the number of different types of fauna are also decreasing. Many types of fauna are found in Nepal and some of them are spiny babbler, red panda et cetera. The bird — spiny babbler is only found in Nepal and only a few remain today. Many people do not even know about spiny babbler and that it is only found in Nepal. So, due to this problem, rare animals are being poached. To conserve the pride of Nepal, wildlife reserves and national parks for both flora and fauna have to be established. So, by this we can protect the flora and fauna in Nepal. We should preserve flora and fauna. We should preserve forests where there are a number of fauna and flora.
— Rohan Adhikari
I am from Nepal’s Tarai region. The Tarai is also known as the hub of flora and fauna. But, at the same time, plants and animals have been disappearing day by day due to people’s negligence towards them. Of course, this is wrong for such flora and fauna. So, it is everyone’s responsibility to protect them no matter where we are from. In my area, animals like deer and wild boar are facing the threat of extinction. These animals are being poached massively by hunters for their valuable organs and meat. In order to protect them, the community forest personnel and the government security forces should both come together to protect these animals while the areas should be maintained and checked regularly. As a result, the hunter/poacher will not get a chance to hunt/poach the animals. In such a way, I think the threat of extinction of endangered animals can be minimised.
— Saroj Wagle, Dumarwana, Bara
Nepal is rich in biodiversity because of its unique physical features, thus we find many types of flora and fauna here. But unfortunately people have polluted and destroyed the habitat of these organisms and due to that everyday one or the other species of certain animals/plants is becoming extinct. And saving them is our responsibility as we have destroyed their habitat. So, in my opinion, every Nepali should understand their importance and must help to protect the flora and fauna. We should create a governing body to look after them and create a suitable habitat where they are able to adjust and live comfortably. No one should hunt them and laws should be made to look after their rights. And we ourselves also must not pollute or damage their habitat.
— Sarah Khan
Nepal is magnificent in terms of flora and fauna. We can see so many plants and wildlife living in different geographical locations. There are some which can be found only in Nepal like the bird named Kade Bhyakur. Luckily, we also have the one-horned rhino which gives a spectacular picture and this is a rare sight that can’t be seen in other countries.
Nepal is a rich country in natural resources. Shankhuwasaba is my hometown and the local people of this place don’t realise the value of the natural resources. And so they have cut down precious plants for settlement by which animals have lost their habitat. People are also hunting and poaching animals to earn money.
Realising the importance of flora and fauna, we must protect them. For their protection, the government has to play a leading role for their protection, conservation and preservation. So, there must be strict rules and laws regarding it. And penalty should be charged if anyone doesn’t follow the rules. Everyone should be encouraged to participate in conservation activities of wild plants and animals. People should hold programmes and campaigns to make others aware about the importance and protection of the rich flora and fauna. Education has to be provided to all people of the rural areas so that they will learn to respect and protect the precious things which is near to them.
— Anjali Gurung
Nepal is a biodiverse Himalayan nation rich in a variety of species of flora and fauna. However, over the decades several species of flora as well as fauna such as rhinoceros, elephants, tigers, leopards, primates, birds, fishes, reptiles, amphibians and countless invertebrates have either become vulnerable, endangered or critically endangered. Some have even become extinct. There are several anthropogenic factors that are responsible for the slow but steady decline of different species of local flora and fauna across Nepal. One of the foremost factors impacting species diversity in Nepal is the challenge of ecological degradation and environmental pollution, global warming and climate change, unplanned growth of villages, towns and cities along with exponential rise of human population beyond the carrying capacity of the local ecosystems. Lack of proper environmental impact assessments while allowing the successful completion of several infrastructural projects across the nation has damaged local forests and wildlife seriously.
Unrestricted application of synthetic chemicals and fertilisers in agriculture has caused local water bodies poisoning which run deep impacting several terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Furthermore, poaching, illegal trade and trafficking of local wildlife and forest products, severe dependence of local communities on the vulnerable forest resources for daily sustenance, lack of education and awareness, poor management of natural resources and unrestricted occasional forest fires have all contributed to the serious loss of forests and wildlife across Nepal.
It is important to develop a comprehensive forest and wildlife conservation plan for the whole nation involving all stakeholders like governmental departments, NGOs, lawyers, ecologists, conservators, students, indigenous communities in the nationwide effort for protecting forests and vulnerable wildlife.
— Saikat Kumar Basu
Flora and fauna are the kings of the jungle. In Nepal, we don’t have many different species of bird and animals because poachers have killed them to earn money. As we don’t have strict rules and regulations, one or two species are being poached on a daily basis. If we visit the zoo in Jawalakhel, we can’t see lots of flora and fauna and many cages are empty there. Due to lack of strict rules, flora and fauna have not been protected and preserved and some of them are on the verge of extinction. Mainly tigers and elephants are poached more in number and they sell their body parts. When we are losing our precious plants and animals, why isn’t anyone doing anything about it? It is everyone’s responsibility to protect them and one and only solution for this problem is awareness among people. They should accept that animals make the jungle beautiful, and they are also living beings and no one has the right to kill them. And the government has to organise awareness campaign to share their importance to people.
— Sonika Lamichhane
The flora and fauna of Nepal have been facing the threat of extinction, which could unfortunately come true in the next few years. The main reason behind this fact is neither the government nor the authorities concerned is giving any emphasis in this regard.
When it comes to my area, I really don’t have any idea about what flora and fauna are on the verge of extinction. I do know that due to sheer negligence and lack of proper care, they will soon disappear from our country if we are not serious from right now. Of course it is a well-known fact that Nepal possesses those flora and fauna which we hardly find in any other part of the world. Now the need of the hour is that the government of our country should be serious to address this problem as soon as possible. We should work in solidarity and determination to solve this problem right on time. Otherwise a day will arrive when all those flora and fauna will be wiped out of our country.
— Pratik Shrestha, Buddhanagar, Baneshwor
Diversity in nature is something Nepal is quite well-gifted with. However, nothing has its worth unless we have realised its importance, tried to nurture it and moreover made an effort to protect it. The flora and fauna have been boon to the nation but it’s sad to say, for those animals and plants being here have become a bane since we people are not doing much for their protection. With their habitat taken down in the name of deforestation and urbanisation, species like musk deer, Asiatic elephants, Gaur, snow leopard, et cetera are on the verge of extinction.
As per the data of the National Conservation status of Nepal’s Avifauna (March 2016), out of 878 bird species recorded in Nepal, 167 are facing the threat of extinction. The Taudaha Lake, famous as a bird sighting place, has witnessed decrease in the number of birds in the recent years, all credit to the increasing human residence and pollution. Same is the situation of the medicinal herbs and rare plants. People are unaware about those green gold around. So, spreading awareness should be the first step towards conservation. Media can play a very effective role in it. Strict rules and laws must not be just some words written on paper, but implementation should be done. Boasting about the diversity we do have is genuine, but we must have that potential to make the best use of it and preserve that diversity we are proud of.
— Suneha Shrestha, Kathmandu
Among the many countries of the world, Nepal is one of the richest in flora and fauna. Thanks to diverse geographical areas with climatic differences. Also many species of seasonal birds migrate from other countries to Nepal. There are some species which are exclusive to Nepal. This includes Kande Bhaykur, which is only found in Arun Valley. Among some of the rare animals of Nepal are musk deer which can survive only in the mountainous regions of Nepal and the one-horned rhino that is only found in Nepal.
Varieties of medicinal plants are also found in Nepal. Production of these plants is very high in our country. Every year medicinal plants are exported to other countries like yarshaghumba, panchaule, jatamansi, cheeraito et cetera. Hence, the flora and fauna are important assets of Nepal. However, some of the species of plants and animals are facing various threats, while some have become extinct and many are on the verge of extinction due to many reasons. Destruction of their habitat in the form of deforestation is one of the major factors for the extinction of plants and animals.
In our locality, varieties of beautiful, attractive and colourful birds as well as colourful flowering plants were found around 20 to 25 five years ago, but nowadays, there have completely disappeared from our locality. This is perhaps due to destruction of their habitat and climate change. In order to protect them from becoming extinct, public awareness programmes should be launched for conserving natural habitat. Afforestation programmes should be conducted while poaching of animals should be stopped and more national parks and conservations areas should be motivated.
— Bhairab Bahadur Pandey, Nuwakot
Despite, being topographically and naturally rich, Nepal’s flora and fauna are disappearing day by day. In my opinion, the first and foremost thing necessary for the protection of these flora and fauna from disappearing from the Earth is mutual cooperation among the government, NGOs /INGOs and every citizen of the country. Besides, the expansion of educational network and creating awareness among people through seminars, rallies and mass media regarding the importance of flora and fauna from every natural, ecological, and tourism aspects can also play a key role in the protection of flora and fauna.
For this, radio might be a cheap and reliable media to make people of rural areas aware. Furthermore, I think the citizens of our country play a major role in the protection and conservation of flora and fauna. In addition, the government can also generate employment opportunities for jobless people and reduce poverty which can greatly help in reducing the rate of poaching. Further, the government too can attract people in conservation of flora and fauna by rewarding actively working animal conservationists, local people and organisations with attractive prizes every year. Moreover, hatcheries and breeding techniques are the best technological options that can be adopted to increase the number of flora and fauna.
— Madhav Ghimire, Ratopul, Kathmandu
A version of this article appears in print on August 07, 2016 of The Himalayan Times.
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Our country is situated on the southern lap of high Himalayan range between India and the Tibetan autonomous region of the people’s republic of China. The total area is 147181 sq km having the length of 885 km from east to west and average of breadth 193 km .The latitude is 26’ 22’’ and 30’ 37’’ north and 80’4’’ and 12’ east. Within this range,we are endowed with the deepest George ‘Kaligandaki’ to the highest point of Mount Everest at 8848 m from sea level. Presence of typical geography,we possess the outstanding biodiversity in the world ranging from subtropical rain forest to alpine desert along with the tranquil and enchanting feathers. Despite of small land areas also, we possess three greatly altered geographical region, contrariness of which measures the height of moon literally which has blessed for it’s natural features and rich in biodiversity. Our country is praised all over the world and our paradise is always the major center of attention. If someone describes about our country, there is not the mystery that one of the few sentences will certainly refer that some of Himalayan, hilly and terai region. And the more interesting is that very great difference in between each of these region from the point view of topography , nature,, scenic view, climate, vegetation ,lifestyle of people etc. In totality such features have enriched our biodiversity.
Biodiversity means the variability among living organisms from all sources including , among other things, terrestrial, marine and other aquatic ecosystem and the ecological complexes of which they are part; this include diversity within species , between species and of ecosystem. In fact we are enrich in the biodiversity and the diversity and Nepal are like bones and flesh that is our nation is entitled with diversity in the world. The folks are always admiring the geography and diversity of Nepal. Our country occupies about 0.1 %of the total land , in which 71% covered by water isn’t included , if it is included the proportion becomes 0.03%. Diversity starts from the lowest to highest Himalaya peak in the world which is a reflection of it’s unique geographical position and climate variation. There are over 6500 species of flowering plants, over 1500 fungi species, over 350 lichen species. Out of those about 370 species of flowering plants are considered endemic to Nepal. Faunal diversity in Nepal is also vast, the country harbors 175 mammal species, 836 bird species, 147 reptile and amphibian species, 180 species of fish, 640 species of butterfly and above 6000 species of moth . Of these, 26 species of mammals, nine birds and three reptiles are either endangered or vulnerable or threatened. Those species include Tiger, Rhinoceros, Elephant, Musk deer, Snow leopard, Swamp deer, wild buffalo, Bengal florican, Lesser florican, Red panda, clouded leopard, Gangatic dolphin, Gharial, etc. .A total of 118 ecosystems have been identified in different physiographic zones of Nepal. Out of these ecosystems, 80 ecosystems are represented in present protected area system in Nepal.
Comparative study of plants species in world and Nepal
|Flowering plants||231638*||6391 2.76|
|Pteriodophytes||10369 *||534 5.15|
|Lichens||>17000 **||471 2.77|
Sources : *UNEP-WCMC 2006; , **WCMC 1992 , #Modified after Malla and Shakya 1998
Comparative study of animal species in world and Nepal
Sources : Uetz, P 2000, @ Birdlife International 2006, @@ IUCN 2003 ,#Smithsonian institution 2007, *PlatnicknNl 2006
Between 3,000 and 4,000 bacteria species have been identified around the world. Enormous numbers of uncultured bacteria are yet to be identified from soils, deep sea sediments and the digestive tracts and pockets of a wide variety of animals and insects (WCMC 1992).This important group of organisms has not received adequate attention in Nepal yet, and the study of bacteria in diverse habitats is needed.
During the International Workshop on Lichen Taxonomy held in Kathmandu in 1994, lichenologists estimated about 2,000 lichen species in Nepal. Lichens are found in all climatic zones. Forty-eight lichen species are reported to be endemic to Nepal. Sharma (1995) identified 471 species from 79 genera and 30 families. Studies on lichens have been carried out mainly in eastern and central Nepal. Lichens from the lowland terrain and Siwalik Hills are much less known, and those of western Nepal remain largely unexplored.
Adhikari(1999) listed 1,822 species of fungi belonging to 585 genera and 80 families. However, studies on fungi have mainly focused in the Mid-Hills and high altitude regions and in the Kathmandu Valley, and exploration in the lowlands has been inadequate. Little is known about the distribution of fungi in Nepal.
Baral (1995) identified 687 species of algae belonging to 150 genera and 50 families in Nepal, with 12 species presumed to be endemic. Most work on algae has been concentrated in the High Mountain and Mid-Hills regions. The Terai belt, which supports luxuriant growths of algae owing to its hot and humid climate, has not been extensively investigated yet.
A total of 853 species of bryophytes (mosses and liverworts) has been recorded (Kattel and Adhikari 1992) and 668 species of bryophytes listed, of which 627 species are found in eastern Nepal, and 283 species in central Nepal (BPP 1995) . The largest number of bryophyte species, 493, has been recorded in the Mid-Hills (subtropical and temperate zones); 347 in the High Mountains (alpine and sub-alpine zones); and 61 in the Siwalik Hills and Terai (tropical zone). The bryophytes of eastern and central Nepal have been reasonably well studied, but work is still required on the bryophytes of western Nepal.
An enumeration of pteridophytes (ferns and fern allies) was compiled by Iwatsuki(1988). Iwatsuki recorded 380 species, with 258 distributed in the eastern region, and 97 in the central region of Nepal. No collections have been made from western Nepal. The greatest number of pteridophyte species was recorded in the Mid-Hills: 272 species in subtropical and temperate zones. The Siwalik Hills and the Terai tropical zones hold 81 species, the High Mountains (alpine and sub-alpine zones) 78species, and the high Himalayas (Nival zone) just one species. Pteridophytes of Nepal, published in 2002 by the Department of Plant Resources, enumerated 534 species of ferns and fern allies representing 35 families and 102 genera(DPR-MFSC 2002).
Gymnosperms have been the best studied topic amongst the vascular plants of Nepal. Altogether, 27 species of gymnosperms have been listed (Koba et al. 1994). These include 20 indigenous species belonging to 13 genera and 10 families (Shrestha 1984-85).
The angiosperm flora of Nepal is impressively high on a global scale in view of the limited area of the country. Koba et al. (1994) extended the lists of flowering plant species prepared by Hara and Williams (1979); Hara et al. (1978; 1982), enumerating 5,806 species belonging to 203 families. To this number, a list of 50 species has been added by Akiyama et al. (1998) bringing the total angiosperm species count in Nepal to 5,856. The introduction of additional species new to Nepal has raised this number to 5,891 (Malla and Shakya 1998). However, Hara et al. (1978) and the World Conservation Monitoring Centre (Caldecot et al.1994) estimate a total of 6,500 species. This figure is corroborated by the Biodiversity Profile Project (1995) ranking Nepal as having the tenth richest flowering plant diversity in Asia. On a world scale, Nepal ranks 31st (Caldecot et al. 1994).
Diversity of fauna
The number of fauna species in Nepal is relatively high. Higher fauna groups have been relatively well studied. The taxonomy and distribution of lower fauna groups, with the exception of butterflies and to some extent spiders, are yet to be studied. A comprehensive Fauna of Nepal guide is essential in order to understand the status of such species for their effective conservation.
Helminths are invertebrate animals with bilateral symmetry and without appendages. Most of these species are parasitic and are found in the wild as well as within domestic plants and animals. In Nepal, helminths are not well studied and helminthological work is confined to the Kathmandu Valley. A checklist of 168 species of helminth parasites has been compiled: 33 species belong to trematodes, 67 to nematodes, 36 to cestodes, and 32 species are plant Nematodes (Gupta 1997). Some common plant
helminth parasites include the Meliodogyne incognita, M. arenaria, and M. javanica, all of which cause damage to vegetables. Ascaris lumbricoides, Ancylostoma duodenale, and Taenia species are common human parasites.
Thapa (1995) reported 144 species of spiders belonging to 17 families. Some 109 species were new to science at the time of their identification in Nepal. Most have been collected from the High Mountains and Mid-Hills. The farwestern region and the entire lowland Terai and Siwalik Hills need further study. With the additional contributions of Thapa and Rana (2001), 175 species of spiders have been identified .
An inventory by Thapa (1997) enumerates 5,052 species of insects; 1,131 species were discovered for the first time and described from Nepali specimens. Apis laboriosa, the world’s largest honeybee; Attacus atlas, the world’s largest Atlas moth; and Epiophlebia laidlawi, a relict dragonfly species, are three insect species unique to Nepal.
Butterflies and Moths
Among Nepal’s fauna, butterflies are the best studied group throughout the country (Smith 1994; 1997). In 1995, 640 species of butterflies were recorded in different ecological zones. The Red Data Book of the Fauna of Nepal (BPP 1995) listed 142 species of which 12 were endangered, 43 vulnerable, and the remaining 87 species susceptible to becoming threatened in the future. Four species and 25 subspecies are possibly endemic. There are 557 species found in the Mid-Hills, 325 in the Terai, and 82 in the highlands (BPP 1995). Some 2,253 species of moths excluding Microlepidoptera have been recorded in Nepal (HMGN/MFSC 2002). The current list includes 651 species of butterflies and 785 species of moths (Thapa, 1998; and Khanal, B. 2006).
The fishes of Nepal have been fairly well documented. There are 187 species. (Shrestha, J. 1995; and DNPWC 2001). Many taxonomic changes have been made in the genera and species of fish by Shrestha, J. (2001) who listed a total of 182 species belonging to 11 orders, 31 families, and 93 genera. Altogether, 34 species are known to be threatened and eight species are endemic to Nepal.
Amphibians and Reptiles
Shah (1995) listed 143 species of amphibians and reptiles in Nepal. Forty-three species include one salamander; four toads, and 38 frogs. The 100 species of reptiles include 24 lizards, 14 turtles, two crocodiles, and 60 snakes. Studies of amphibians and reptiles have been carried out in a number of areas including the Arun Valley in eastern Nepal, Chitwan National Park in central Nepal, and the Annapurna-Dhaulagiri region in western Nepal. There are 195 species of herpeto fauna, including 77 amphibians and 118 species of reptiles in Nepal(Shah, K. 1995; and Shah and Tiwari 2004).
The birds of Nepal have been well studied. A total of 874 bird species have been recorded by 2006 (BCN. 2006, Inski 1991; Fleming 1976; and Baral 2005). BPP records included 854 species of birds including 11 species listed as extinct. The DNPWC/BCN checklist included 862 species of birds; other sources reported 12 additional species. An additional 20 species of birds have been added to the BPN list since 1996 (Table 11). Of the total 874 species of birds, 62% are resident birds, 14% are winter visitors, 12% are passage migrants, 6% summer visitors, 5% residents and migrants, and 1% summer and winter visitors .
A comprehensive account of Nepal’s mammalian fauna has been produced by Suwal and Verheugt (1995) who listed 181 mammal species belonging to 12 orders and 39 familiesThe current list includes 185 species of mammals (Annex 2.8). The four new additions are the binturong (Arctictis binturong), Indian mongoose (Herpestes nyula), Himalayan marmot (Marmotahimalayana) and Tibetan gazelle (Procaprapicticaudata) . The Indian mongoose (Herpestes nyula) is not included in the general mammal checklist although it is mentioned in the BPP document (BPP. 1995). Mammals are well represented in the protected areas of Nepal.
Importance of Bio-diversity
Bio-diversity has a significant important. Man’s development and bio-diversity are interrelated to each other. Bio-diversityimportant is closely associated with man’s food, housing, life styles, social activities and economic aspects. Thus, bio-diversity can also be regarded as the various sources of goods necessary for human beings. Bio-diversity importance has been explained below.
a. Agricultural Production
Agricultural products such as rice, maize, wheat, green vegetables and fruits are the basic sources of food for human beings. Their source is agriculture is biodiversity. Plants are crops of various species such as rice, maize, fruits and green vegetables are found in Nepal. Such crops and plants were found in the forest in the beginning but human beings started to cultivate them as useful plant. They selected good seeds and their plants. Such activities resulted in development of crops and plants. These are the major sources of food for human beings.
b. Animal Production
The sources of production required for human beings such as milk, curd, ghee, meat and fish are available for the bio-diversity. Similarly, horses and camel are used to transport goods from one place to another. Dogs are kept for security of houses. Various raw materials such as bones, hair, wool and leather are available for the animals. People make clothes, cosmetic goods and other by using them. The raw materials essential for medicines and also available from animals, birds and plants. Such goods can be produced and distributed. These are the sources of the income.
c. Plant Production
Roots and fruits are also available from plants. These are the sources of raw materials for the timber industries. herbs, clothes, medicines, colors and paper.
d. Improvement in breed
People keep animals and birds for their uses. These also plant various types of vegetation. The production capacity of local species and immunity against disease can be improved through their use. Therefore, bio-diversity helps to improve the existing living beings of various places. Wild species can be used to breed the domestic animals and birds. Important plants should be identified through studies and research works and be preserved.
e. Soil Conservation
Various plants appear in different places. Large and small plants keep the particles of soil by pressing them. They protect soil erosion. Therefore, the physical condition of a place is distributed if the plants and the grasses are destroyed. The structure of land becomes weak and soil erosion and landslide can occur. Thus, bio-diversity helps to preserve land, soil and physical feature.
f. Watershed Conservation
The vegetation such as plants and grasslands help to conserve sources of water and watershed. The area of green belts is less evaporated and the water is collected in the land. Bio-diversity and sources of water and watershed areas are related to each other. One cannot exist in the absence of other. For examples, if sources of water are dry, there will be a loss in bio-diversity. Thus, biodiversity plays a significant role in the conservation and promotion of watershed areas.
g. Natural Beauty and Scenes
Bio-diversity makes environment and nature beautiful. Natural environment is created by plants, animals and birds, their size and types, colour, adaptation and responses. The habitat of animals and birds in the forest, their sound/noise and responses and life styles maintain natural beauty. Such beauty provides entertainment to men. There are a number of such places in the Himalayan, Hilly and the Terai regions of Nepal. Realizing the importance of biodiversity, the following measures are to be adopted for its conservation.
- Over grazing in the forest and areas of vegetation should be controlled because it may destroy the useful rare plants.
- The habitat of plants and animals should be conserved.
- The natural condition of ecosystem should be studied and research in time and again , then the specific programs for conservation should be conducted.
- Human activities should be done without destroying the natural habitat and environment.
- Illegal hunting and smuggling of animals and plants should be strictly avoided.
- Effective laws and rules should be adopted for the conservation of rere animals and plants.
- Industries are established from the raw materials .During the processing raw materials, care should be taken not to destroy useful plants and habitats of animals.
- Public awareness should be created about the importance of rare animals and plants , causes of rareness and measures for their preservation.